An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
halogen
  هالوژن   
hâložen (#)

Fr.: halogène   

A member of a group of five chemical elements having closely related and similar properties. The halogens are: fluorine, chlorine, iodine, bromine, and astatine. They make up Group 17 of the → periodic table and can be found on the left-hand side of the → noble gases.

From Gk. halo- prefix from Gk. hals "salt" + → -gen.

Hamal (α Arietis)
  حَمَل   
hamal (#)

Fr.: Hamal   

The brightest star in the constellation → Aries. Hamal is a cool → giant of → spectral type K2 with a → luminosity about 55 times that of the Sun and lies about 65 light-years away.

Hamal, from Ar., shortened form of Ra's al-Hamal (رأس‌الحمل), "the head of the sheep."

Hamilton's equation
  هموگش ِ هامیلتون   
hamugeš-e Hamilton

Fr.: équation de Hamilton   

One of a set of equations that describe the motion of a → dynamical system in terms of the → Hamiltonian function and the → generalized coordinates. For a → holonomic system with n degrees of freedom, Hamilton's equations are expressed by: q.i = ∂H/∂pi and p.i = - ∂H/∂qi, i = 1, ..., n.

Hamiltonian function; → equation.

Hamilton's principle
  پروز ِ هامیلتون   
parvaz-e Hamilton

Fr.: principe de Hamilton   

Of all the possible paths along which a → dynamical system can move from one configuration to another within a specified time interval (consistent with any constraints), the actual path followed is that which minimizes the time integral of the → Lagrangian function. Hamilton's principle is often mathematically expressed as δ∫Ldt = 0, where L is the Lagrangian function, the integral summed from t1 to t2, and δ denotes the virtual operator of Lagrangian dynamics and the → calculus of variations.

Hamiltonian function; → principle.

Hamiltonian dynamics
  توانیک ِ هامیلتون   
tavânik-e Hamilton

Fr.: dynamique hamiltonienne   

The study of → dynamical systems in terms of the → Hamilton's equations.

Hamiltonian function; → dynamics.

Hamiltonian formalism
  دیسه‌گرایی ِ هامیلتون   
disegerâyi-ye Hamilton

Fr.: formalisme de Hamilton   

A reformulation of classical mechanics that predicts the same outcomes as classical mechanics. → Hamiltonian dynamics.

Hamiltonian; → mechanics.

Hamiltonian function
  کریای ِ هامیلتون   
karyâ-ye Hâmilton

Fr.: fonction de Hamilton   

A function that describes the motion of a → dynamical system in terms of the → Lagrangian function, → generalized coordinates, → generalized momenta, and time. For a → holonomic system having n degrees of freedom, the Hamiltonian function is of the form: H = Σpiq.i - L(qi,q.i,t) (summed from i = 1 to n), where L is the Lagrangian function. If L does not depend explicitly on time, the system is said to be → conservative and H is the total energy of the system. The Hamiltonian function plays a major role in the study of mechanical systems. Also called → Hamiltonian.

Introduced in 1835 by the Irish mathematician and physicist William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865); → function.

Hamiltonian operator
  آپارگر ِ هامیلتون   
âpârgar-e Hamilton

Fr.: opérateur hamiltonien   

The dynamical operator in → quantum mechanics that corresponds to the → Hamiltonian function in classical mechanics.

Hamiltonian function; → operator.

hamlet
  کلا   
kalâ

Fr.: hameau   

A small → village.

M.E. hamlet, hamelet, from O.Fr. hamelet "small village," diminutive of O.Fr. hamel "village," itself diminutive of ham "village;" of Germanic origin; cf. E. home, O.E. ham, Du. heem, Ger. Heim; cognate with → city.

Kalâ, from Tabari kalâ "village, borough." Dozens of village names contain kalâ az suffix in Mâzandarân and Gilan.

hand
  دست   
dast (#)

Fr.: main   

1) The terminal part of the forelimb in humans and other primates.
2) A part serving the function of or resembling a hand.

M.E. O.E. hond, hand "hand; side; power;" cf. O.S., O.Fris., Du., Ger. hand, O.N. hönd, Goth. handus.

Dast "hand; strength; superiority;" Mid.Pers. dast; O.Pers. dasta-; Av. zasta-; cf. Skt. hásta-; Gk. kheir; L. praesto "at hand;" Arm. jern "hand;" Lith. pa-žastis "arm-pit;" PIE *ghes-to-.

handbook
  دستنامه   
dastnâmé (#)

Fr.: manuel   

A scholarly book on a specific subject that is conveniently handled.

hand; → book.

handedness
  دستالی   
dastâli

Fr.: latéralité, manualité   

1) A tendency to use one hand rather than the other.
2) The property of an object (as a molecule) of not being identical with its mirror image. Same as → chirality (Merriam-Webster.com).
See also: → B-mode polarization, → E-mode polarization.

hand + -ed + → -ness.

Dastâli, from dast, → hand, + -al, → -al, + noun suffix -i, on the model of → chirality.

Hanle effect
  اسکر ِ هانله   
oskar-e Hanle

Fr.: effet Hanle   

The → polarization arising from line scattering in the presence of "weak" magnetic fields. The effect occurs when precession around magnetic field depolarizes and rotates polarization of the scattered light. The Hanle effect is sensitive to ~103 times smaller field strengths than the → Zeeman effect. It is in particular used to measure the weak magnetic field of the solar → prominences, which is 10-3 tesla and over 10-2 tesla for the active prominences.

Named for the German physicist Wilhelm Hanle (1901-1993), who published his his discovery in 1923 (Naturwissenschaften 11, 690); → effect.

happen
  فتیدن   
fatidan

Fr.: arriver, se produire   

Take place; occur; befall.

M.E. hap(pe)nen, from hap "luck, chance" + -en.

Fatidan, variant of oftâdan, fotâdan "to fall; to be fall, occur;" Sistani aft, aftid "to → fall."

happening
  فتش   
fateš

Fr.: événnement   

An → event or occurrence.

Verbal noun of → happen; → -ing.

harass
  ستوهیدن   
sotuhidan (#)

Fr.: harceler   

To disturb persistently; bother continually. → galaxy harassment.

From M.Fr. harasser "tire out, vex," possibly from O.Fr. harer "set a dog on," and perhaps blended with O.Fr. harier "to harry, draw, drag."

Sotuhidan, infinitive from sotuh, → harassed.

harassed
  ستوه   
sotuh (#)

Fr.: harcelé   

Subject to → harassment.

P.p. of → harass.

Sotuh "afflicted, distressed, helpless," from Mid.Pers. stô "distressed, defeated;" O.Pers. us-tav-, from us- "out, without," ultimately from *ustau- "unable, weak," from *us- "out," → ex-, + *tau- "to be able," → power.

harassment
  ستوهش   
sotuheš

Fr.: harcelement   

The act or an instance of harassing. → galaxy harassment.

Verbal noun of → harass.

hard
  سخت   
saxt (#)

Fr.: dur   

Not soft; severe.
Physics: Having relatively high energy (of a beam of particles or photons); → hard X-rays; opposed to → soft.

Hard, from O.E. heard "solid, firm; severe, rigorous," from P.Gmc. *kharthus (cf. Du. hard, O.H.G. harto "extremely, very," Goth. hardus "hard"), from PIE *kratus "power, strength" (cf. Gk. kratos "strength," kratys "strong").

Saxt "hard, strong, firm, secure, solid, vehement, intense," from Mid.Pers. saxt "hard, strong, severe;" Av. sak- "to understand or know a thing, to mark;" cf. Skt. śakta- "able, strong," śaknoti "he is strong," śiksati "he learns."

hard binary
  درین ِ سخت   
dorin-e saxt

Fr.: binaire dur   

In → stellar dynamics studies of → three-body encounters, a → binary system whose → binding energy far exceeds the → kinetic energy of the relative motion of an incoming third body. In such an encounter, a hard binary is likely to get harder and transfer energy to the incoming star, whereas a → soft binary is likely to be disrupted.

hard; → binary.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>