An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
Sedna
  سدنا   
Sednâ (#)

Fr.: Sedna   

A trans-Neptunian object (numbered 90377) and a likely → dwarf planet, it is the most distant large object yet found orbiting the Sun. It is at present over 90 A.U.s away, 3 times as far as Pluto. Its precise diameter is unknown, probably 1,600-2,200 km (about 12-17% of Earth). Its estimated orbital period is 12,050 years. Formerly known as 2003 VB12

In Inuit mythology, Sedna (Inuktitut Sanna) is a goddess of the marine animals, especially mammals such as seals.

Sedov-Taylor phase
  فاز ِ سدوف-تیلور   
fâz-e Sedov-Taylor

Fr.: phase de Sedov-Taylor   

The second phase in the evolution of a → supernova remnant (SNR) occurring after the → free expansion phase. After the passage of the → reverse shock, the interior of the SNR is so hot that the energy losses by radiation are very small (all atoms are → ionized, no → recombination). The expansion is driven by the → thermal pressure of the hot gas and can therefore be regarded as → adiabatic; the → cooling of the gas is only due to the → expansion. Pressure forces accelerate the swept-up → interstellar medium (ISM) converting → thermal energy (which came from original explosion) into → kinetic energy of the → shell of swept-up mass. As the mass of the ISM swept up by the shell increases, it eventually reaches densities which start to impede the free expansion. → Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities arise once the mass of the swept-up ISM approaches that of the ejected material. This causes the SNR's ejecta to become mixed with the gas that was just shocked by the initial → shock wave. The Sedov-Taylor phase lasts some 104 years and is followed by the radiative or → snowplow phase. Also called → adiabatic phase.

After Sedov, L. (1959, Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics, New York, Academic Press) and Taylor, G. I. (1950, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A, 201, 159 and 175); → phase.

see
  دیدن   
didan (#)

Fr.: voir   

To perceive with the eyes; look at.

M.E. seen, from O.E. seon "to see, look, behold, understand, know," ultimately from PIE *sekw- "to see, notice;" cognate with Du. zien "to see," Ger. sehen "to see," Danish, Swedish and Norwegian Bokmal se "to see," L. signum "mark, token."

Didan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" Mid.Pers. ditan; O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen."

Seebeck effect
  اسکر ِ زیبک   
oskar-e Seebeck

Fr.: effet de Seebeck   

An → electromotive force produced in a closed electric circuit formed by connecting conductors of different metals in series when the two junctions junctions are maintained at different temperatures. The circuit constitutes a → thermocouple.

Named for the German physicist Thomas Seebeck (1770-1831), who discovered the effect; → effect.

seed
  تخم   
toxm (#)

Fr.: germe   

A small single crystal of a semiconductor from which is grown the large single crystal for the manufacture of semiconductor devices.

O.E. sed, sæd; cf. O.N. sað, O.S. sad, O.Fris. sed, M.Du. saet, O.H.G. sat, Ger. Saat; PIE base *se- "to sow."

Toxm "seed" (Tabari tim "seed; race," Laki tôm "seed"), from Mid.Pers. tôhm, tôhmak, tôm, tuxm "seed; extraction; descent;" Av. taoxman- "seed;" O.Pers. taumī:- "family;" cf. Skt. tókman- "offspring, children, race, child," tokma- "young shoot, young blade of corn."

seed nucleus
  هسته‌ی ِ تخم   
haste-ye toxm

Fr.: noyau germe   

A nucleus from which a variety of → fusion  → chain reactions derive in → stellar nucleosynthesis.

seed; → nucleus.

seeing
  شکان   
šekân

Fr.: seeing   

A measure of the blurring and degradation of the image of astronomical objects caused by → turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere, including the telescope environment. Seeing causes the images of stars to break up into → speckle patterns, which change very rapidly with time. See also → Fried parameter; → differential image motion monitor.

see; → -ing.

Šekân "wrinkle, plait; curl; rupture, breach," variant of šekan "fold, curl; ripples on water," from šekastan "to break, split;" Mid.Pers. škastan "to break;" Av. scind-, scand "to break, cleave;" Proto-Iranian *skand- "to break, cleave;" PIE sken- "to cut off."

seeing disk
  گرده‌ی ِ شکان، دیسک ِ ~   
gerde-ye šekân, disk-e ~

Fr.: tache de seeing   

The angular size of a stellar image for long exposures, as determined by the ratio λ/r0, where λ is the wavelength and r0 the typical size of → turbulence patches. → Fried parameter. The most common seeing measurement is the → full-width at half-maximumof the seeing disk. → Airy disk.

seeing; → disk.

seeing monitor
  پهره‌گر ِ شکان   
pahregar-e šekân

Fr.: moniteur de seeing   

An optical instrument that follows the variation of → atmospheric turbulence by continuously measuring the → seeing conditions.

seeing; → monitor.

segment
  برنک   
borank

Fr.: segment   

1) Of a line, that portion bounded by two points.
2) Of a circle, that portion of a plane bounded by an arc of the circle and its chord.
3) Of a sphere, the solid formed between two parallel planes that cut through a sphere.
4) In computer science, a portion of a program, often one that can be loaded and executed independently of other portions.

From L. segmentum "a strip or piece cut off," originally a geometric term, from secare "to cut" + -mentum "-ment."

Borank, from Kermâni borang "a slice (of fruit);" Borujerdi boleng "piece, section," ultimately from *brin-ka- (probable contracted forms Lari peng and pengi "portion or part of anything"), related to boridan "to cut off;" Mid.Pers. brīn-, blyn-, britan, brinitan "to cut off," Av. brī- "to shave, shear," brin- (with prefix pairi-); cf. Skt. bhrī- "to hurt, injure," bhrinanti "they hurt;" PIE base bhrei- "to cut, pierce."

segmented mirror
  آینه‌ی ِ برنکیده   
âyen-ye borankidé

Fr.: miroir segmenté   

A large telescope mirror consisting of smaller mirror segments designed to act as a single, larger reflecting surface. Because current monolithic mirrors cannot be constructed larger than about eight meters in diameter, the use of segmented mirrors is a key component for larger aperture telescopes.

Segmented, p.p. of → segment (v.); → mirror.

segregate
  سواییدن   
savâyidan

Fr.: séparer, isoler   

To separate or set apart from others or from the main body or group; isolate.

From M.E. segregat, from L. segregatus, p.p. of segregare "separate from the flock, isolate, divide," from se- "apart from" + greg-, ablative of grex, gregis "herd, flock, crowd," cf. Gk. gergera "swarm, flock;" maybe related to Old Khotanese -gris- in hamgris- "to assemble."

Savâyidan, from savâ "separate, apart;" probably related to Mid.Pers. s'w- "to crush," sây- "to rub, wear, tear;" cf. Kurd. (Hawramân) sawa, Roshani sêw-/sêwt, Bartangi siw-/siwd, Yazghulani saw-/sed, Bajui sâw-/sâwd "to rub, smear, grind" (Cheung 2007); Mod.Pers. sây-/sudan "to rub, wear, tear, grind, dissolve;" cf. Skt. śā- "to sharpen, whet."

segregation
  سوایش   
savâyeš

Fr.: ségrégation   

The act or practice of segregating. The state or condition of being segregated. → mass segregation.

Verbal noun of → segregate.

seismic
  لرزه‌ای   
larze-yi (#)

Fr.: sismique   

Of, subject to, or caused by → vibrations of the → Earth. → seismic wave.

From seism, → seismo-, + → -ic.

seismic wave
  موج ِ لرزه‌ای   
mowj-e laez-yi (#)

Fr.: onde sismique   

An → elastic wave generated in the → Earth by an → impulse such as an → earthquake or an → explosion. Seismic waves may travel either along or near the Earth's surface or through the Earth's interior.

seismic; → wave.

seismo-
  لرزه-   
larzé- (#)

Fr.: sismo-   

A combining form meaning "earthquake;" → seismology, → seismograph, etc.

From Gk. seismo- combining form of seismos "shock, earthquake," from seiein "to shake."

Larzé-, from larzé "shaking, trembling," from larzidan "to tremble, shiver;" Mid.Pers. larzidan "to shake, tremble;" Manichean Mid.Pers. rarz- "to shiver with fever;" Proto-Iranian *rarz- "to shake, tremble."

seismograph
  لرزه‌نگار   
larzenegâr (#)

Fr.: sismographe, séismographe   

An instrument that detects, magnifies, and records → seismic waves, especially those caused by → earthquakes or → explosions.

seismo-; → -graph.

seismology
  لرزه‌شناسی   
larzešenâsi (#)

Fr.: sismologie, séismologie   

The branch of geophysics that is concerned with the study of earthquakes and measurement of the mechanical properties of the Earth.

seismo-; → -logy.

seldom
  پرزانه   
perzâné

Fr.: rarement   

Not → often; rarely.

M.E., from O.E. seldum, variant of seldan; cognate with Ger. selten, Goth. silda-, Dutch zelden.

Adverb from perz, → rare.

select
  گزیدن   
gozidan (#)

Fr.: sélectionner, choisir   

To choose from among several.

From L. selectus, p.p. of seligere "to choose out, gather apart," from se- "apart" + legere "to gather, select."

Gozidan "to select, choose;" Mid.Pers. vicitan, wizidan, wizin- "to choose, select, discriminate," related to cin-, cidan "to gather, collect;" Av. vicidāi- "to discern," viciθa- "separation, discernment;" from vi- "apart, away from" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + kay- "to choose;" cf. Skt. ci- "to gather, heap up," cinoti "gathers."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>