An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
island universe
  گیتی-آداک، گیتی-جزیره   
giti-âdâk, giti-jaziré

Fr.: univers-île   

The hypothesis first put forward by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) according to which the objects termed "spiral nebulae" were stellar systems comparable to our own → Milky Way galaxy. At the end of the 18th century, William Herschel (1738-1822) using his giant reflectors discovered thousands of such nebulae. However, in spite of advances in observations it was never possible to prove Kant's idea until the second decade of the twentieth century. The observations using the Mount Wilson 2.50m (100 inch) telescope allowed Edwin Hubble in 1924 to firmly establish that the "spiral nebulae" were unquestionably extragalactic.

The term "island Universe" was first introduced by the German Alexander von Humboldt in 1850; → island; → Universe.

iso-
  ایزو-، هم-   
izo- (#), ham- (#)

Fr.: iso-   

Prefix denoting "equal; homogeneous; uniform." Also is- sometimes before a vowel.

From L.L., from Gk. isos "equal."

Izo-, loan from Gk. isos, as above. The Pers. ham-com- is overused; therefore this dictionary adopts izo-.

isobar
  ایزوبار، ایزوفشار   
izobâr (#), izofešâr

Fr.: isobare   

1) Meteo.: A line connecting points having equal pressure.
2) Any of a group of nuclides which, although having different atomic numbers, have identical mass numbers; e.g. the tin isotope 11550Sn and the indium isotope 11549In.

From Gk. isobares "of equal weight," from → iso- + bar, from baros "weight," cognate with Pers. bâr "charge, weight" (Mid.Pers. bâr, from O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" L. brutus "heavy, dull, stupid, brutish;" Skt. bhara- "burden, load," bharati "he carries;" Mod.Pers. gerân "heavy;" Skt. guru; L. gravis; PIE *gwere- "heavy;" *bher- "to carry, give birth").

isobaric process
  فراروند ِ ایزوفشار   
farâravand-e izofešâr

Fr.: processus isobare   

A process taking place at constant pressure. → polytropic process.

Isobaric, adj. of → isobar; → process.

isobaric spin
  ایزو‌اسپین   
isospin (#)

Fr.: spin isobarique   

Same as → isospin.

Isobaric, adj. of → isobar; → spin.

isochoric process
  فراروند ِ ایزوگنج   
farâravand-e izogonj

Fr.: processus isochore   

A process in which the volume remains unchanged.

From → iso- + chor-, from Gk. chora "place, land" + → ic.

Farâravand, → process; izogonj, from izoiso- + gonj "volume," gonjdan "to be contained; to hold exactly; to be filled;" Mid.Pers. winj- "to be contained;" Proto-Iranian *uiac-/*uic-; cf. Skt. vyac- "to contain, encompass," vyás- "extent, content, extension;" L. uincire "to bind."

isochrone
  ایزوزمان   
izozamân

Fr.: isochrone   

A curve on a → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram connecting all stars having the same age.

Isochrone, back formation from isochronal, from Gk. → iso- + khronos "time."

Izozamân, from → iso- + zamântime.

isogonal
  ایزوکنج   
izokonj

Fr.: isogonal   

Having similar angles.

iso- + -gonal, → diagonal

isogonal trajectory
  ترایشانه‌ی ِ ایزوکنج   
tarâyešâne-ye izokonj

Fr.: trajectoire isogonale   

Math.: A curve which intersects every member of a given one-parameter family of curves at one and the same angle.

isogonal; → trajectory.

isohel
  ایزوهور   
izohur

Fr.: isohel   

Line joining geographical points of equal insolation during a specific interval of time.

From Gk. → iso- + hel, from helios "sun," → helio-.

Izohur, from izo-, → iso-, + hur "sun," cognate with → helio-.

isokinetic angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ ایزوجنبشی   
zâviye-ye izojonbeši

Fr.: angle isocinétique   

Adaptive optics: The angle over which wavefront phases become de-correlated by 1 radian rms due to → tip-tilt alone. It is defined analogously to the → isoplanatic angle.

iso-; → kinetic; → angle.

isolate
  وایوتیدن   
vâyutidan

Fr.: isoler   

To set or place apart; detach or separate so as to be alone.
Chemistry: To obtain a substance in an uncombined or pure state.
Physics: → isolated system.

Isolate, back-formation from isolated, from Fr. isolé "isolated," from It. isolato, from L. insulatus "made into an island," from insula "island;" maybe from *en-salos "in the sea," from salum "sea."

Vâyutidan, from vâ- denoting "separation" (also "reversal, opposition; repetition; back, backward," variant of bâz-, from Mid.Pers. abâz-, apâc-; O.Pers. apa- [pref.] "away, from;" Av. apa- [pref.] "away, from," apaš [adv.] "toward the back;" cf. Skt. ápāñc "situated behind") + Mid.Pers. yut "separate, different," Mod.Pers. jodâ "separate, apart;" Av. yuta- "separate, apart" + -idan infinitive suffix.

isolated
  وایوتیده   
vâyutidé

Fr.: isolé   

Set apart or separated from others or other things.

Past participle of → isolate.

isolated galaxy
  کهکشان ِ وایوتیده   
kahkešân-e vâyutidé

Fr.: galaxie isolée   

A galaxy that is not a member of a dense aggregate. In other words, a galaxy that is formed in a low galactic density environment and has evolved without major interactions with other galaxies of similar mass.

isolated; → galaxy.

isolated massive star formation
  دیسش ِ وایوتیده‌ی ِ ستاره‌ی ِ پرجرم   
diseš-e vâyutide-ye setâre-ye porjerm

Fr.: formation isolée d'étoile massive   

Massive star formation outside → OB associations. Recent observational findings suggest that → massive star formation is a collective process. In other words, massive stars form in → cluster environments and the mass of the most massive star in a cluster is correlated with the mass of the cluster itself. Nevertheless, other observational results give grounds for supposing that massive stars do not necessarily form in clusters but that they can be formed as isolated stars or in very small groups. According to statistical studies nearly 95% of Galactic → O star population is located in clusters or OB associations. This means that a small percentage, about 5%, of high mass stars may form in isolation. Isolation is meant not traceable to an origin in an OB association. This definition therefore excludes → runaway massive stars, which are thought to result from either dynamical interaction in massive dense clusters, or via a kick from a → supernova explosion in a → binary system. Alternatively, isolated massive star has been defined as follows: An O-type star belonging to a cluster whose total mass is < 100 Msun and moreover is devoid of → B stars (Selier et al. 2011, A&A 529, A40 and references therein).

isolated; → massive star; → formation.

isolated neutron star (INS)
  ستاره‌ی ِ نوترونی ِ وایوتیده   
setâre-ye notroni-ye vâyutidé

Fr.: étoile à neutron isolée   

A → neutron star which does not belong to a → binary system, does not have radio emission, and is not surrounded by a progenitor → supernova remnant. INSs appear to be thermally cooling with no emission outside the → soft X-ray band, except for faint optical/UV counterparts. Although these properties are similar to those of → compact central object (CCO)s, they are a distinct class because they lack any observable associated supernova remnant or nebula. There are presently seven confirmed INSs (sometimes referred to as The Magnificent Seven), six of which have measured weakly modulated X-ray pulsations with periods between 3 s and 11 s, much longer than those of CCOs (A. K. Harding, 2013, Front. Phys. 8, 679).

isolated; → neutron; → star.

isolated system
  راژمان ِ وایوتیده   
râžmân-e vâyutidé

Fr.: système isolé   

Thermodynamics: A system which has no exchange of energy or matter with surroundings. The internal energy of such a system remains constant. → closed system; → open system.

isolated; → system.

isolation
  وایوتش   
vâyuteš

Fr.: isolation   

An act or instance of isolating; the state of being isolated.

Verbal noun of → isolate.

isomer
  ایزومر   
izomer (#)

Fr.: isomère   

Physics: Any of two or more nuclei having the same atomic number A and mass number Z but different half-lives.
Chemistry: One of two or more substances that have the same chemical composition but differ in structural form.

Back formation from isomeric, from → iso- + mer a combining form meaning "part," from Gk. meros "part, portion, share."

Izomer, loan from Fr. isomère.

isomorphism
  ایزو-ریخت‌مندی   
izo-rixtmandi

Fr.: isomorphisme   

A one-to-one → mapping between two → sets, which preserves the relations existing between elements in its → domain. An isomorphism is a → bijective morphism.

iso-; → morphism.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>