An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
certainty
  تاشتیگی   
tâštigi (#)

Fr.: certitude   

The fact, quality, or state of being certain, especially on the basis of evidence. Something that is certain. → uncertainty; → uncertainty principle.

Noun from → certain.

cesium
  سزیوم   
seziom (#)

Fr.: césium   

A soft ductile chemical element of the → alkali metal group; symbol Cs. It is found in several → silicate minerals, including pollucite. The metal oxidizes in air and reacts violently with water. → Atomic number 55; → atomic weight 132.9054; → melting point 28.4°C; → boiling point 669.3°C; → specific gravity 1.873 at 20°C; and → valence +1. Cesium has several radioactive isotopes, among which 134Cs with a half-life of 2.07 years and 137Cs with a half-life of 30.3 years. Cesium was discovered spectroscopically in 1860 by W. Bunsen and G. Kirchhoff in mineral water from Durkheim.

From L. caesius "bluish gray," which was the color of the cesium line in the spectroscope, + → -ium.

cesium clock
  ساعت ِ سزیوم   
sâ'at-e seziom

Fr.: horloge à cesium   

atomic fountain clock.

cesium; → clock.

Cetus
  کتوس   
Ketus

Fr.: Baleine   

The Whale, or Sea Monster. A large, rather inconspicuous → constellation in the equatorial region of the sky at R.A. 1h 30m, Dec. -10°. Its brightest star (Diphda) is a 2nd magnitude and contains → Mira Ceti, the first-known variable star, and the → Seyfert galaxy M77. Abbreviation: Cet; genitive form: Ceti.

Named after the sea monster in Gk. mythology sent by Poseidon to punish the Queen → Cassiopeia for bragging that she or her daughter → Andromeda was more beautiful than the Nereides. But → Perseus rescued Andromeda.

Ketus, from Gk., Arabicized form Qeytas (قیطس).

CGS system
  راژمان ِ CGS   
râžmân-e CGS

Fr.: système CGS   

The system of → CGS units.

CGS unit; → system.

CGS units
  یکاهای ِ س.گ.ث   
yekâhâ-ye CGS (#)

Fr.: unités CGS   

A → metric system of physical units based on → centimeter (length), → gram (mass), and → second (time).

CGS, the initials of → centimeter, → gram, and → second; meter, kilogram, and second; → unit.

CH (methylidine)
   CH (متیلیدین)   
CH (methylidine)

Fr.: CH (méthylidine)   

The first molecule detected in the interstellar medium. Methylidine radical (CH) was discovered by Walter S. Adams in 1937 using coudé spectroscopy in the direction of the bright star ζ Ophiuchi at the Mount Wilson Observatory (main CH line at 4300 Å).

Chemical term based on Gk. methy "wine," cognate with Pers. mey "wine," from Mid.Pers. mad, may "wine;" Av. maδu- "wine, mead;" cf. Skt. mádhu- "honey, wine, sweet drink," O.E. medu, E. mead, M.Du. mede, Ger. Met "mead;" O.C.S. medu, Lith. medus "honey;" Rus. m'od "honey," m'édved' "bear" (literally "honey-knower"); PIE base *médhu- "honey, sweet drink."

CH molecule
  مولکول ِ متیلیدین   
molekul-e methylidine

Fr.: molécule de méthylidine   

CH (methylidine).

CH (methylidine); → molecule.

chain
  زنجیر، زنجیره   
zanjir (#), zanjiré (#)

Fr.: chaîne   

1) A series of usually metal links passing through one another, used for various purposes.
2) A series of things connected or following in succession. → chain reaction; → proton-proton chain.

Chain, from O.Fr. chaeine, from L. catena "fetter."

Zanjir from Mid.Pers. zanjir "chain;" zanjiré, from zanjir + nuance suffix .

chain reaction
  واژیرش ِ زنجیری، واکنش ِ ~   
vâžireš-e zanjiri, vâkoneš-e ~

Fr.: réaction en chaîne   

A succession of → nuclear fissions when the neutrons released by previous fissions produce other nuclear fissions which themselves cause other reactions and the reactions goes on increasing exponentially.

chain; → reaction.

Chajnantor observatory
  نپاهشگاه ِ چاخنانتور   
nepâhešgâh-e Chajnantor

Fr.: observatoire de Chajnantor   

A high plateau site located at an altitude of 5,104 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, about 50 kilometers to the east of San Pedro de Atacama (longitude 67° 46' W, latitude 23° 02' S). It is the site of the → Atacama Large Millimeter Array.

In Kunza, the ancestral language of the people living in the region, Chajnantor or Tchacknatur means "lift-off place." It is the place of platforms for worshipping the Sun, where since immemorial time prayers and wishes lifted off (ESO book Cerca del Cielo).

chalco-
  خالکو-، مس-   
xâlko-, mes-

Fr.: chalco-   

A prefix meaning "copper," used in the formation of compound words.

From Gk. chalko-, combining form of chalkos "copper."

Xalco-, loan from Gk., as above.
Mes-, from mes, → copper.

chalcophile
  خالکودوست، مسدوست   
xâlkdust, mesdust

Fr.: élémznt chalcophilz   

chalcophile element.

chalco-; → -phile.

chalcophile element
  بن‌پار ِ خالکودوست، ~ مسدوست   
bonpâr-e xâlkdust, ~ mesdust

Fr.: élément chalcophile   

In the → Goldschmidt classification, a → chemical element that has an → affinity for sulphur, and therefore tending to be more abundant in sulphide minerals and ores than in other types of rock. This group is depleted in the silicate Earth and may be concentrated in the core. The group includes → silver (Ag), → arsenic (As), → bismuth (Bi), → cadmium (Cd), → copper (Cu), → mercury (Hg), → indium (In), → lead (Pb), → sulfur (S), → antimony (Sb), → selenium (Se), → tellurium (Te), and → thallium (Tl). As a consequence of their relatively low condensation temperatures (500-1100 K), most of these elements are depleted in terrestrial planets with respect to chondrites.

chalcophile; → element.

Chamaeleon
  آفتاب‌پرست   
Âftâbparast (#)

Fr.: Caméléon   

The Chameleon. A small inconspicuous → constellation in the southern hemisphere near → Crux, lying at approximate position: R.A. 11 h, Dec. -80°. Abbreviation: Cha; genitive form: Chamaeleonis;

From O.Fr. chaméléon, from L. chamaeleon, from Gk. khamaileon, from khamai "on the ground" (akin to chthon "earth;" cf. Av. zam- "the earth," Mid.Pers. zamig, Mod.Pers. zami, zamin "the earth," Skt. ksam, L. homo "earthly being" and humus "the earth," PIE *dh(e)ghom "earth") + leon "lion."

Âftâbparast "chameleon," literally "sun adorer," from âftâb "Sun, sunlight" + parast "worshipper,"

chamber
  اتاقک   
otâqak (#)

Fr.: chambre   

An enclosed space making part of a laboratory apparatus, such as → bubble chamber, → cloud chamber, → multiwire proportional chamber.

M.E., from O.Fr. chambre, from L.L. camera "a chamber, room."

Otâqak "small room, small chamber," cf. Sogdian ôtâk "place, region," ôtâkcik "local, regional, native" + -ak diminutive suffix.

champagne effect
  اسکر ِ شامپانی   
oskar-e šâmpâyn

Fr.: effet champagne   

Blowing out of → ionized gas from a → molecular cloud when the → ionization front of an → H II region created by an → embedded  → massive star arrives at the molecular cloud edge. The large → pressure gradient set up between the H II region and the → interstellar medium ejects the ionized material with velocities larger than 30 km/s, in a way comparable to champagne flowing out of a bottle.

From a hydrodynamical model first proposed by Guillermo Tenorio-Tagle (1979). Champagne, Fr., short for vin de Champagne "wine from Champagne," a historical region at northeast France, from L.L. campania "flat open country," from L. campus "field;" → effect.

champagne flow
  تچان ِ شامپانی   
tacân-e šâmpâyn

Fr.: flot champagne   

The flow of → ionized gas escaping from a → molecular cloud due to the → champagne effect.

flow.

Chandler wobble
  پلاپل ِ چاندلر   
palâpel-e Candler

Fr.: mouvement de Chandler   

Small-scale variations in the position of the Earth's geographical poles within an irregular circle of 3 to 15 metres in diameter. It seems to result from two nearly circular components, a seasonal variation in the mass distribution on the Earth (ice, snow, atmosphere) and movements of matter within the Earth.

Named after Seth Carlo Chandler (1846-1913), the American astronomer who discovered the phenomenon; → wobble.

Chandra X-ray Observatory
  نپاهشگاه ِ پرتوهای ِ X ِ چاندرا   
nepâhešgâh-e partowhâ-ye X-e Chandra

Fr.: Observatoire des rayons X Chandra   

An astronomy satellite launched by NASA in 1999 July, specially designed to detect X-ray emission from very hot regions of the Universe such as exploded stars, clusters of galaxies, and matter around black holes. Chandra carries a high resolution mirror (aperture 1.2 m, focal length 10 m), two imaging detectors (HRC and ACIS), and two sets of transmission grating spectrometer (LETG and HETG). Important Chandra features are: an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution, good sensitivity from 0.1 to 10 keV, and the capability for high spectral resolution observations over most of this range. Chandra was initially given an expected lifetime of 5 years, but on 4 September 2001 NASA extended its lifetime to 10 years "based on the observatory's outstanding results." Among the results obtained using Chandra one can mention the spectacular image of the → supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. See also → X-ray astronomy.

Initially called Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), the satellite was renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics, → Chandrasekhar limit. Moreover, Chandra, or candra- means "moon" or "shining" in Skt., from cand- "to give light, shine;" cf. Gk. kandaros "coal;" L. candela "a light, torch," from candere "to shine;" → X-ray; → Observatory.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>