# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 conjugate angles   زاویه‌ها‌ی ِ همیوغ   zâviyehâ-ye hamyuqFr.: angles conjugués   Two angles whose sum is 360° or 2π radians.→ conjugate; → angle. conjugate axis   آسه‌ی ِ همیوغ   âse-ye hamyuqFr.: axe conjugué   One of the two diameters of a conic, so related that a tangent at the end of one is parallel to the other.→ conjugate; → axis. conjugate complex number   عدد ِ همتافت ِ همیوغ   adad-e hamtâft hamyuq (#)Fr.: nombre complexe conjugé   The conjugate of a → complex number, expressed by ū = a - bi. The complex number and its conjugate have the same real part. Same as → complex conjugate.→ conjugate; → complex; → number. conjugate momentum   جنباک ِ همیوغ   jonbâk hamyuqFr.: moment conjugué   If qj (j = 1, 2, ...) are generalized coordinates of a classical dynamical system, and L is its Lagrangian, the momentum conjugate to qj is pj = ∂L/∂q. Also known as canonical momentum.→ conjugate; → momentum. conjugate points   نقطه‌های ِ همیوغ   noqtehâ-ye hamyuqFr.: points conjugués   Two points positioned along the principal axis of a mirror or lens so that light coming from one focuses onto the other.→ conjugate; → point. conjugate ray   پرتو ِ همیوغ   partow-e hamyuqFr.: rayon conjugué   Of an optical ray, the parallel ray that passes through the center of the → optical system.→ conjugate; → ray. conjugate transpose   ترانهاد ِ همیوغ   tarânehâd-e hamyuqFr.: transpose conjugé   Of an m x n→ matrix  A with → complex  → elements, the n x m matrix A* obtained from A by taking the → transpose and then taking the → complex conjugate of each element. Same as → adjoint matrix or Hermitian transpose.→ conjugate; → transpose. conjugation   همیوغش   hamyuqeš (#)Fr.: conjugaison   1) Math: An operation of a group G on itself which associates with each ordered pair (x,y) of elements in the group the element xyx-1. 2) Grammar: The → inflection of verbs.Verbal noun form of → conjugate.Hamyuqeš, from ham-, as above + yuqeš verbal noun of yuqidan "to yoke, join," from yuq "yoke," from PIE *yeug- "to join," → conjugate. conjunct   هم‌جوهه   hamjuhéFr.:   Any of the component statements of a → conjunction. conjunction   ۱) هم‌ایستان، هاجوهش؛ ۲) هاجوهش   1) hamistân, hâjuheš; 2) hâjuhešFr.: conjonction   1) A position of two bodies in the → solar system when they have the same → celestial longitude, seen from the Earth. The bodies can be a → planet and the → Sun, two planets or the → Moon and a planet. The → superior planets are in conjunction with the Sun, when, seen from the Earth, they are right behind the Sun. The → inferior planets, such as Mercury and Venus, have two conjunctions with the Sun: → inferior conjunction, when they are between the Earth and the Sun, and → superior conjunction, when they are on the other side of the Sun. 2) Logic: A → proposition of the form "A and B" (A ∧ B), where A and B are themselves propositions. For example, if A is "It is 8 O'clock" and B is "We are late," then A∧ B is "It is 8 O'clock and we are late." A and B are called → conjuncts. The conjunction of A and B is → true only if A and B are both true. 3) Grammar: A word that connects words, phrases, or clauses, or sentences. Examples are: and, or, but, because, however, neither.M.E. conjunccio(u)n, from O.Fr. conjonction, from L. conjunctionem, p.p. of conjugare "to join together," from → com- "together" + jugare "to join," from jugum "yoke," from PIE *yeug- "to join;" Av. yaog- "to yoke, put to; to join, unite;" Mid.Pers. jug, ayoxtan "to join, yoke;" Mod.Pers. yuq "yoke," variant juh, → yoke; Skt. yugam "yoke;" Hittite yugan "yoke;" Gk. zygon "yoke," zeugnyanai "to join, unite;" O.C.S. igo; O.Welsh iou; Lith. jungas; O.E. geoc.Hamistân "standing together," from ham- "together," → com- + istân "standing," from istâdan "to stand" (cf. Skt samstha "an assembly"), Mid.Pers. êstâtan, O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set," Av. hištaiti, cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand," Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still," L. stare "to stand." Hâjuheš, from hâ-, variant of ham-, → com-, + juh "yoke," as above. connect   هابندیدن   hâbandidanFr.: connecter, se connecter   To join, link, or fasten together. To establish communication with or between.M.E., from L. connectere, from "to fasten together, join together," from → com- "together" + nectere "to bind, tie," from nexus "bond, link," related to nodus "knot."Hâbandidan, from hâ- intensive prefix, from ham-, → com-, + band present stem of bandidan, bastan, → band; cf. (dialectal Anâraki) ha-bend. connected   هابندیده   hâbandidéFr.: connecté   Joined, linked, or having a connection. → connected graph.Past participle of → connect. connected graph   نگاره‌ی ِ هابندیده   negâre-ye hâbandidéFr.: graphe connecté   In → =graph theory, a graph if for every pair of distinct vertices there is a path.→ connected; → graph. connection   هابند، هابندش   hâband, hâbandešFr.: connexion   The act or state of connecting. The state of being connected. Something that connects; link; bond.Verbal noun of → connect. connective   هابندار، هابندنده   hâbandâr, hâbandandéFr.: 1) connectif; 2) connecteur   1) (adj.) Serving to → connect or capable of connecting. 2) (n.) Something that connects. 3) → logical connective.→ connect + → -ive.Hâbdandâr, from hâband present stem of hâbandidan, → connect, + -âr contraction of âvar, from âvardan "to bring, cause, produce," → format; hâbandandé verbal adj. from hâbandidan. connectivity   هابندندگی   hâbandandegiFr.: connectivité   1) General: The state or ability of being connected. 2) Computers: The capacity of a machine to be connected to other facilities.→ connective + → -ity. connector   هابندگر   hâbandgarFr.: connecteur   A person or thing that connects.→ connect; → -or. conquer   هنانیدن   hanânidanFr.: conquérir   1) To acquire by force of arms; to overcome by force. 2) Successfully overcome an obstacle or weakness.From O.Fr. conquerre "conquer, defeat, vanquish," from V.L. *conquaerere, L. conquirere "to search for, procure by effort," from → com- + quaerere "to seek, gain."Hanânidan, from Av. hanānī, han- "to conquer;" cf. Skt. sani "to win, gain;" Gk. hanutein "to complete, accomplish;" OHG sinnan "to strive after something" (Cheung 2007). conqueror   هناننده   hanânandéFr.: conquérant   A person who conquers a place or people.→ conquer; → -or. conquest   هنانش   hanânešFr.: conquête   1) The act or process of conquering. 2) Something conquered; especially territory appropriated in war (Merriam-Webster.com).Ultimately related to → conquer.