# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 congruent   دمساز   damsâzFr.: congruent   1) Agreeing; accordant. 2) Math.: → congruent number. 3) Geometry: → congruent angles, → congruent circles, → congruent line segments, → congruent polygons, → congruent triangles.Congruent "suitable, proper," from L. congruentem (nominative congruens) "agreeing, fit, suitable," p.p. of congruere, literally "to come together, agree, correspond with," from → com- "with" + a lost verb *gruere, *ruere "fall, rush."Damsâz "agreeing, consenting, harmonious," maybe from hamsâz "unanimous," → compatible. congruent angles   زاویه‌های ِ دمساز   zâviyehâ-ye damsâzFr.: angles congrus   Two angles if they have the same measure. Congruent angles may lie in different orientations or positions.→ congruent; → angle. congruent circles   پرهون‌های ِ دمساز   parhunhâ-ye damsâzFr.: cercles congrus   Two circles if they have the same size.→ congruent; → circle. congruent line segments   برنک‌های ِ دمساز   borankhâ-ye damsâzFr.: segments congru   Two line segments if they have the same length. They need not lie at the same angle or position on the plane.→ congruent; → line; → segment. congruent number   عدد ِ دمساز   adad-e damsâzFr.: nombre congru   Number theory: An → integer N if there exists a → right triangle with → rational sides so that the area of the triangle is N. For example, the number N = 6, because of the 3-4-5 triangle.→ congruent; → number. congruent polygons   چندبرهای ِ دمساز   candbarhâ-ye damsâzFr.: polygones congrus   Polygons that have an equal number of sides, and all the corresponding sides and angles are congruent. However, they can be in a different location, rotated or flipped over.→ congruent; → polygon. congruent triangles   سه‌برهای ِ دمساز   sebarhâ-ye damsâzFr.: triangles congrus   Two triangles when all corresponding sides and interior angles have the same measure. The triangles will have the same shape and size, but one may be a mirror image of the other.→ congruent; → triangle. conic   مخروطی   maxruti (#)Fr.: conique   Same as → conic section.Adj. from → cone. conic section   سکنج ِ مخروطی   sekanj-e maxrutiFr.: section conique   A curve which may be represented as the intersection of a plane with a cone; hence a → parabola, → hyperbola, or → ellipse.→ cone; → section. conjecture   ۱) هاشن؛ ۲) هاشنیدن   1) hâšan; 2) hâšanidanFr.: 1) conjecture; 2) conjecturer, supposer   1a) The formation or expression of an opinion or theory without sufficient evidence for proof. → mathematical conjecture. 1b) An opinion or theory so formed or expressed; → guess; → speculation. 2) To conclude or suppose from grounds or evidence insufficient to ensure reliability (Dictionary.com). An opinion or theory formed without sufficient evidence for proof; guess; speculation.M.E., from O.Fr. conjecture "surmise, guess," or directly from L. coniectura "conclusion, interpretation, guess, inference," literally "a casting together (of facts, etc.)," from coniectus, p.p. of conicere "to throw together," from → com- "together" + iacere "to throw," → eject.Hâšan, from hâ-, variant ham-, → com-, + šan, from ešândan "to throw out," → eject. conjugate   ۱) همیوغ؛ ۲) همیوغیدن   1) hamyuq (#); 2) hamyuqidan (#)Fr.: 1) conjugué; 2) conjuguer   1) An element of a group related to a given element x by y = z-1xz or zy = xz, where z is another element of the group. Also known as → transform. 2) To → inflect a verb.From L. conjugare "to join together," from → com- "together" + jugare "to join," from jugum "yoke," from PIE *yeug- "to join;" cf. Av. yaog- "to yoke, put to; to join, unite," Mid.Pers. jug, ayoxtan "to join, yoke," Mod.Pers. yuq "yoke," Skt. yugam "yoke," Hittite yugan "yoke;" Gk. zygon "yoke," zeugnyanai "to join, unite," O.C.S. igo, O.Welsh iou, Lith. jungas O.E. geoc.Hamyuq, from ham- "together," → com- + yuq "yoke," from PIE *yeug- "to join," as above. conjugate angles   زاویه‌ها‌ی ِ همیوغ   zâviyehâ-ye hamyuqFr.: angles conjugués   Two angles whose sum is 360° or 2π radians.→ conjugate; → angle. conjugate axis   آسه‌ی ِ همیوغ   âse-ye hamyuqFr.: axe conjugué   One of the two diameters of a conic, so related that a tangent at the end of one is parallel to the other.→ conjugate; → axis. conjugate complex number   عدد ِ همتافت ِ همیوغ   adad-e hamtâft hamyuq (#)Fr.: nombre complexe conjugé   The conjugate of a → complex number, expressed by ū = a - bi. The complex number and its conjugate have the same real part. Same as → complex conjugate.→ conjugate; → complex; → number. conjugate momentum   جنباک ِ همیوغ   jonbâk hamyuqFr.: moment conjugué   If qj (j = 1, 2, ...) are generalized coordinates of a classical dynamical system, and L is its Lagrangian, the momentum conjugate to qj is pj = ∂L/∂q. Also known as canonical momentum.→ conjugate; → momentum. conjugate points   نقطه‌های ِ همیوغ   noqtehâ-ye hamyuqFr.: points conjugués   Two points positioned along the principal axis of a mirror or lens so that light coming from one focuses onto the other.→ conjugate; → point. conjugate ray   پرتو ِ همیوغ   partow-e hamyuqFr.: rayon conjugué   Of an optical ray, the parallel ray that passes through the center of the → optical system.→ conjugate; → ray. conjugate transpose   ترانهاد ِ همیوغ   tarânehâd-e hamyuqFr.: transpose conjugé   Of an m x n→ matrix  A with → complex  → elements, the n x m matrix A* obtained from A by taking the → transpose and then taking the → complex conjugate of each element. Same as → adjoint matrix or Hermitian transpose.→ conjugate; → transpose. conjugation   همیوغش   hamyuqeš (#)Fr.: conjugaison   1) Math: An operation of a group G on itself which associates with each ordered pair (x,y) of elements in the group the element xyx-1. 2) Grammar: The → inflection of verbs.Verbal noun form of → conjugate.Hamyuqeš, from ham-, as above + yuqeš verbal noun of yuqidan "to yoke, join," from yuq "yoke," from PIE *yeug- "to join," → conjugate. conjunct   هم‌جوهه   hamjuhéFr.:   Any of the component statements of a → conjunction.