An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
Metis
  متیس   
Metis

Fr.: Métis   

The innermost moon of → Jupiter. Also known as Jupiter XVI. It was discovered in 1979 in images taken by Voyager 1. Its mass is about 3.6 × 1016 kg and its dimensions 60 × 40 × 34 km. Its mean distance from Jupiter is 128 000 km and its → orbital period is 0.29 Earth days, which is faster than Jupiter's rotation period. Metis is one of the → Shepherd moons of Jupiter.

Named in 1983 after the first wife of Zeus.

Metonic cycle
  چرخه‌ی ِ متون   
carxe-ye Meton

Fr.: cycle de Méton   

A time interval lasting 235 → lunations, or about 19 → tropical years (235 = 19 x 12 + 7), after which → lunar phases recur on the same days of the year.

Named after Meton of Athens, a Gk. mathematician, astronomer, geometer, and engineer who used it in 432 B.C., but it was known to the Babylonians by around 500 B.C. and to the Chinese around 600 B.C.; → cycle.

metric
  ۱، ۲) متریک؛ ۳) متری   
1), 2) metrik (#); 3) metri (#)

Fr.: métrique   

1) A mathematical → expression consisting of an → array of → components which are needed for calculating → infinitesimally small → distances between two → points in some geometrical → space. More simply put, the → function used to define a distance between two points in a → metric space. Also called → distance function.
2) In → general relativity the metric describes the → space-time geometry and gives the interval between two neighboring → events.
3) Pertaining to the meter or to the → metric system.

From → meter + → -ic.

metric prefix
  پیشوند ِ متری   
pišvand-e metri

Fr.: préfixe du système international d'unités   

Any of the suffixes adopted by the International System of Units (→ SI units).
For numbers larger than 1: → deca- (101), → hecto- (102), → kilo- (103), → mega- (106), → giga- (109), → tera- (1012), → peta- (1015), → exa- (1018), → zetta- (1021), and → yotta- (1024) .
For numbers smaller than 1: → deci- (10-1), → centi- (10-2), → milli- (10-3), → micro- (10-6), → nano- (10-9), → pico- (10-12), → femto- (10-15), → atto- (10-18), → zepto- (10-21), and → yocto- (10-24).

metric; → prefix.

metric space
  فضای ِ متریک   
fazâ-ye metrik

Fr.: espace métrique   

An set of points such that the distance between every pair of points is defined by a → distance function with the following properties: 1) the distance from the first point to the second equals zero if and only if the points are the same, 2) the distance from the first point to the second equals the distance from the second to the first, and 3) the sum of the distance from the first point to the second and the distance from the second point to a third exceeds or equals the distance from the first to the third.
In mathematical language, the properties, for a nonempty set X, can be expressed as:
1) d(x,y)≥ 0 and d(x,y) = 0 if and only if x = y.
2) d(x, y) = d(y,x) for all x, y ∈ X.
3) d(x,z)d(x,y) + d(y,z) for all x, y, and z ∈ X. Also called → triangle inequality.

metric; → space.

metric system
  راژمان ِ متری   
râšmân-e metri

Fr.: système métrique   

A standard system of measurement using decimal units, in which the units of length, time, and mass are meter, second, and kilogram respectively.

metric; → system.

metric tensor
  تانسور ِ متریک   
tânsor-e metrik

Fr.: tenseur métrique   

The abstract tensor operation which is computed in a particular → reference frame using the → metric components. The metric tensor defines magnitude and direction of vectors about a point.

metric; → tensor.

metric unit
  یکای ِ متری   
yekâ-ye metri (#)

Fr.: unité métrique   

A physical → measurement unit in the → metric system.

metric; → unit.

metrology
  اندازه‌شناسی   
andâze-šenâsi

Fr.: métrologie   

The science of measurement, embracing both experimental and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology.

From metro-, a combining form meaning "measure," → meter, + → -logy.

Andâze-šenâsi, from andâzé, → measure, + -šenâsi, → -logy.

MeV
   MeV   
MeV

Fr.: MeV   

Mega (million) → electron volt. A unit of → energy used to describe the total energy carried by a → particle or → photon.

mega- + → electron volt.

MHD condition
  بوتار ِ MHD   
butâr-e MHD

Fr.: condition MHD   

ideal magnetohydrodynamics.

magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); → condition.

mho
     
mho

Fr.: mho   

An older name for the unit of electrical → conductance, which is defined to be the reciprocal of the → ohm. It is now replaced by the → siemens.

Ohm spelt backward.

mica
  میکا   
mikâ (#)

Fr.: mica   

A shiny silicate mineral composed of varying amounts of → aluminum, → potassium, → magnesium, and → iron. Mica appears as thin, flexible layers in → granite and other rocks, or as → crystals. It is used as a thermal or electrical → insulator.

From L. mica "crumb, grain."

Michelson interferometer
  اندرزنش‌سنج ِ مایکلسون   
andarzanešsanj-e Michelson

Fr.: Interféromètre de Michelson   

An apparatus that produces interference fringes by splitting a beam of monochromatic light so that one beam strikes a fixed mirror and the other a movable mirror. When the reflected beams are brought back together, an interference pattern results. It is used to measure very precise lengths, such as the wavelength of light, and for high-resolution spectroscopy.

Named after Albert Abraham Michelson (1852-1931), German-American physicist, who built the interferometer for the → Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887; → interferometer.

Andarzanešsanj, → interferometer.

Michelson-Morley experiment
  آزمایش ِ مایکلسون-مورلی   
âzmâyeš-e Michelson-Morley (#)

Fr.: expérience de Michelson-Morley   

An experiment performed in 1887 to establish the presence or absence of an → ether, a medium through which light was supposed to travel. The experiment aimed to measure the speed of light coming from different directions. However no → ether drift was found. The null results obtained showed that the ether hypothesis was incorrect. Consequently, the theory of → special relativity, with its hypothesis that the speed of light is the same in all → inertial frames, reconciled the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment with the rest of physics.

Michelson interferometer; Michelson received the Nobel Prize in 1907 for his work, the first American to receive the Prize in science. Edward Williams Morley (1838-1923), an American chemist; → experiment.

micro Moon
  ریز ماه   
riz mâh

Fr.: pleine lune d'apogée   

Same as → apogee full Moon.

micro-; → Moon.

micro-
  ۱) ریز-؛ ۲) میکرو-   
1) riz-; 2) mikro-

Fr.: micro-   

1) A combining form for "small."
2) A prefix meaning one millionth (10-6).

From Gk. mikros "small."

Riz-, from riz "very small."

microcomputing
  ریز-ازداییک   
riz-azdâyik

Fr.: microinformatique   

The area of computer science dealing with the use and development of microcomputers, and related peripheral devices and softwares. Also microinformatics.

micro-; → compute.

Riz-, → micro-; azdâyik, → informatics.

microcosm
  ریز‌کیهان   
riz-keyhân

Fr.: microcosme   

Anything that is regarded as a world in miniature.
A unity that is an epitome of a larger unity; opposed to macrocosm.

micro-; → cosmos.

microgravity
  ریز‌گرانی   
riz-gerâni

Fr.: microgravité   

The state or condition where the force of → gravity is very weak, e.g. the → weightlessness experienced inside an orbiting spacecraft.

micro-; → gravity.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>