An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
philosophy
  فلسفه   
falsafé (#)

Fr.: philosophie   

A conceptual study that attempts to understand reality and answer fundamental questions about knowledge, existence, life, morality, and human nature. Philosophy deals with issues that generally are not subject to investigation through experimental verification. It focuses on questions which cannot be answered by means of observation alone. See also → philosophy of science.

From O.Fr. filosofie "philosophy, knowledge," from L. philosophia, from Gk. philosophia "love of wisdom," from philo- "loving" combining form of philos "dear; friend," from philein  "to love," of unknown origin, +  sophia "knowledge, wisdom," from sophis "wise, learned;" of unknown origin.

Falsafé, from Ar. falsafah, loan from Gk. philosophia, as above.

philosophy of science
  فلسفه‌ی ِ دانش   
falsafe-ye dâneš (#)

Fr.: philosophie des sciences   

The critical study of the basic principles and concepts of a particular branch of  knowledge. The philosophy of science is particularly concerned with the nature of scientific facts, the structure of scientific statements, and relations between them.

philosophy; → science.

phlogiston
  فلوژیستون   
fložiston (#)

Fr.: phlogiston   

A hypothetical substance that, prior to the discovery of → oxygen, was thought to be released during → combustion. → phlogiston theory.

From New Latin, from Gk. phlogiston, neuter of phlogistos "inflammable, burnt up," from phlogizein "to set on fire, burn," from phlox "flame, blaze;" from PIE root *bhel- "to shine, burn."

Fložiston, loan from Fr, as above.

phlogiston theory
  نگره‌ی ِ فلوژیستون   
negare-ye fložiston

Fr.: phlogistique   

An obsolete theory of combustion in which all flammable objects were supposed to contain a substance called → phlogiston, which was released when the object burned. The existence of this hypothetical substance was proposed in 1669 by Johann Becher, who called it terra pinguis "fat earth." For example, as wood burns it releases phlogiston into the air, leaving ash behind. Ash was therefore wood minus phlogiston. In the early 18th century Georg Stahl renamed the substance phlogiston. The theory was disproved by Antoine Lavoisier in 1783, who proved the principle of conservation of mass, refuted the phlogiston theory and proposed the oxygen theory of burning.

phlogiston; → theory.

Phobos
  فوبوس   
Fobos (#)

Fr.: Phobos   

The inner → satellite of → Mars orbiting less than 6,000 km above the surface of Mars, closer to its → primary than any other → moon in the → solar system. Phobos is irregularly shaped, 27 x 22 x 18 km in size and orbits Mars in 0.319 days. Phobos' orbit is decaying at a rate of about 2 centimeters per year; it is therefore expected to break up and crash onto Mars within the next 50 million years. See also: → Roche limit, → orbit decay.

In Gk. mythology, Phobos is one of the sons of Ares (Mars) and Aphrodite (Venus). The name means "fear, panic, flight."

Phoebe
  فویءبه   
Foebé (#)

Fr.: Phoebé   

The outermost of Saturn's known satellites, also known as Saturn IX. It is 220 km in diameter and orbits Saturn in 550.5 days at a distance of 12,952,000 km.

In Gk. mythology, Phoebe is the daughter of Uranus and Gaia; grandmother of Apollo and Artemis.

Phoebe ring
  حلقه‌ی ِ فو‌ءبه   
halqe-ye Phoebe

Fr.: anneau de Phœbé   

A giant ring around Saturn spanning an area of space from a distance of ~ 128 Saturn equatorial radii, RS (60,330 km) to 207 RS, that is, from about 7.7 × 106 to 12.4 × 106 km from the planet. Its vertical thickness is about 40 RS. The Phoebe ring was detected in 2009 using NASA's infrared → Spitzer Space Telescope. The Phoebe ring is made up mainly of dust particles about 10 to 20 microns in size, or about one-tenth to one-fifth the average width of a human hair. Rocks that are the size of soccer balls or larger with diameters of more than about 20 cm make up no more than about 10 percent of the ring (Verbiscer et al., 2009, Nature, 461, 1098).

Phoebe; → ring.

Phoenix
  ققنوس   
Qoqnos (#)

Fr.: Phénix   

A constellation in the southern hemisphere, at 0h 30m → right ascension, 50° south → declination. Its brightest star Alpha Phoenicis is of magnitude 2.4. Abbreviation: Phe; genitive: Phoenicis.

L. Phoenix, also phenix, from Gk. phoinix a mythical bird of great beauty which according to one account lived 500 years, burned itself to ashes on a pyre, and rose alive from the ashes to live another period.

Qoqnos, from Ar., from Gk., as above, or, for some reasons (mistake?), from Gk. kuknos, → Cygnus.

phone
  آوا   
âvâ (#)

Fr.: son   

A speech sound considered as a physical event without regard to its place in the sound system of a language.

From Gk. phone "voice, sound," phonein "to speak;" cf. L. fama "talk, reputation, fame."

Âva "voice, sound," related to âvâz "voice, sound, song" (both prefixed forms), bâng "voice, sound, clamour" (Mid.Pers. vâng), vâžé "word," variants vâj-, vâk-, vâ-, vâz-, vât-; Av. vacah- "word," vaocanghê "to decalre" (by means of speech), from vac- "to speak, say;" cf. Skt. vakti "speaks, says," vacas- "word;" Gk. epos "word;" L. vox "voice;" PIE base *wek- "to speak."

phoneme
  واج   
vâj (#)

Fr.: phonème   

The smallest phonetic unit in a language that can distinguish one word from another.

From Fr. phonème, from Gk. phonema "speech sound, utterance," from phonein "to sound," → phone.

Vâj "voice," variant of vâž, vâz-, âvâz etc., → phone.

phonetics
  آواییک   
âvâyik (#)

Fr.: phonétique   

A branch of linguistics dealing with the analysis, description, and classification of speech sounds. More specifically, phonetics deals with the physical production of → phonemes regardless of language, while → phonology studies how those sounds are put together to create meaningful words in a particular language.

From phonetic, from N.L. phoneticus, from Gk. phonetikos "vocal," from phonet(os) "utterable," verbal adj. of phonein "to speak clearly, utter," from → phone + -ikos, → -ics.

&ACIRC;vâyik, from âvâ, → phone, + -ik, → -ics.

phono-
  آوا-   
âvâ- (#)

Fr.: phono-   

A combining form meaning "sound, voice," used in the formation of compound words. Also phon-, especially before a vowel.

From Gk. phon-, phono-, form → phone "voice, sound, speech"

phonology
  آواشناسی   
âvâšnâsi (#)

Fr.: phonologie   

A branch of linguistics that studies the rules in any given language that govern how → phonemes are combined to create meaningful words. Phonology and → phonetics study two different aspects of sound, but the concepts are dependent on each other in the creation of language.

phono-; → -logy.

phonon
  فونون   
fonon (#)

Fr.: phonon   

A quantum of vibrational or acoustic energy in a crystal lattice, being the analog of a photon of electromagnetic energy.

phono- + → -on.

phosphine
  فوسفین   
fosfin

Fr.: phosphine   

A colorless, flammable, and explosive gas at ambient temperature with unpleasant smell of rotten fish or garlic. Named also hydride of phosphorus (PH3), it is highly poisonous in nature. On cooling to 185.5 K, phosphine condenses to a liquid and on cooling to 139.5 K, it solidifies. By heating in the absence of air at 713 K or by passing an electric spark through it, phosphine breaks into its elements. Small amounts occur naturally from the break down of organic matter. It is heavier than air and slightly soluble in water. Phosphine is used in semiconductor and plastics industries, in the production of a flame retardant, and as a pesticide in stored grain. Phosphine has two strong absorption bands in → infrared at 10 and 9 μm.

From phosph-, variant of phospho-, denoting → phosphorus, used before a vowel + suffix -ine, ultimately from L. -inus, used to form names of chemical substances, especially basic (alkaline) substances, alkaloidal substances, or halogen elements.

phosphorescence
  فسفرستی   
fosforesti

Fr.: phosphorescence   

A specific type of → photoluminescence that continues for an appreciable time after the stimulating process has ceased. Phosphorescence is due to the existence of metastable → excited states of the atoms and molecules from which a change to the normal state is hindered for some reason or other. The change from the → metastable metastable state to the normal one becomes possible only as a result of some additional excitation, for example the application of heat.

phosphorus; → -escence.

phosphorus
  ۱) فسفر؛ ۲) روجا، ستاره‌ی ِ بامدادی   
1) fosfor (#); 2) rujâ, setâre-ye bâmdâdi (#)

Fr.: phosphore   

1) Nonmetallic chemical element; symbol P. → Atomic number 15; → atomic weight 30.97376; → melting point 44.1°C; → boiling point about 280°C. It was discovered by the German merchant Hennig Brand in 1669.
2) Greek name for the planet → Venus when it appears as a → morning star.

L. Phosphorus "morning star," from Gk. Phosphoros "morning star," literally "light bearing," from phos "light" + phoros "bearer," from pherein "to carry," cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, lead" (→ periphery). The chemical element is such called because of its white color.

1) Fosfor, loan from Fr.
2) → morning star.

photino
  فوتینو   
fotino (#)

Fr.: photino   

The supersymmetric partner of the → photon.

From phot, from → photon + -ino supersymmetric particle suffix.

photoabsorption
  شید-درشم   
šid-daršam

Fr.: photoabsorption   

A situation in which all of the energy of a photon is transferred to an atom, molecule, or nucleus.

photo- + → absorption.

photocathode
  شید-کاتود، نور-کاتود   
šid-kâtod, nur-kâtod

Fr.: photocathode   

Electrode capable of releasing electrons when illuminated.

photo- + → cathode.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>