An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
oxidant
  ا ُکسنده   
oksandé (#)

Fr.: oxydant   

The substance which supplies the → oxygen in an → oxidation → reaction. Same as → oxydizing agent agent and → oxidizer.

Agent noun from → oxidize.

oxidation
  ا ُکسایش   
oksâyeš (#)

Fr.: oxydation   

The combination of → oxygen with a substance, or the removal of → hydrogen from it.

Verbal noun of → oxidize.

oxidation number
  شمار ِ اکسایش   
šomâr-e oksâyeš

Fr.: nombre d'oxydation   

The total number of electrons that an atom either gains or loses in order to form a chemical bond with another atom. In other words, the charge that atom would have if the compound was composed of ions. The oxidation number of an atom is zero in a neutral substance that contains atoms of only one element. Same as → oxidation state.

oxidation; → number.

oxidation state
  استات ِ اکسایش   
estât-e oksâyeš

Fr.: état d'oxydation   

Same as → oxidation number.

oxidation; → state.

oxide
  ا ُکسید   
oksid (#)

Fr.: oxyde   

A compound of → oxygen and another → chemical element.

From Fr. oxyde, from oxygène, → oxygen and acide, → acid.

oxidizable
  ا ُکسیدنی   
oksidani (#)

Fr.: oxydable   

Capable of undergoing a → chemicalreaction with → oxygen.

oxidize + → -able.

oxidize
  ا ُکسیدن   
oksidan (#)

Fr.: oxyder   

To convert a → chemical element into an → oxide; combine with → oxygen.

oxide + → -ize.

oxidized
  ا ُکسیده   
oksidé (#)

Fr.: oxydé   

Combined with or having undergone a chemical → reaction with → oxygen.

Past participle of → oxidize.

oxidizer
  ا ُکسنده   
oksandé (#)

Fr.: oxydant   

A substance that → oxidizes another substance. Same as → oxidant and → oxidizing agent.

Agent noun from → oxidize.

oxidizing agent
  کنشگر ِ اکسنده   
konešgar-e oksandé

Fr.: oxydant   

A substance that brings about an → oxidation. Same as → oxidant and → oxidizer.

oxide; → -ize; → -ing; → agent.

oxygen
  اکسیژن   
oksižen (#)

Fr.: oxygène   

A gaseous → chemical element; symbol O. Oxygen is the most abundant element in the → Universe not produced in the → Big Bang, and the third most common overall. It is a colorless, tasteless, odorless gas that is the second most abundant constituent of dry air (20.95% by volume). → Atomic number 8; → atomic weight 15.9994; → melting point -218.4°C; → boiling point -182.962°C; → density 1.429 grams per liter at STP. Oxygen was discovered for the first time by a Swedish Chemist, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in 1772. Joseph Priestley, an English chemist, independently, discovered oxygen in 1774 and published his findings the same year, three years before Scheele published. Antoine Lavoisier, a French chemist, also discovered oxygen in 1775, was the first to recognize it as an element.

From Fr. oxygène, literally "acid former," coined in 1777 by the Fr. chemist Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), from Gk. oxys "sharp, acid" + Fr. -gène "something that produces" from Gk. -genes "formation, creation" (cognate with Pers. zâdan "to bring forth, give birth;" Mid.Pers. zâtan; Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born;" cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears;" L. gignere "to beget," nasci "to be born," as above, PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget").

Oksižen, loan from Fr., as above.

oxygen burning
  سوزشِ اکسیژن   
suzeš-e oksižen

Fr.: combustion de l'oxygène   

The stage when a star fuses → oxygen into → silicon and → sulfur. It occurs only in → massive stars, with a mass over eight → solar masses.

oxygen; → burning.

ozone
  ازون   
ozon (#)

Fr.: ozone   

A form of oxygen, O3, in which the molecule is made of three atoms instead of the usual two.

From Ger. Ozon, coined in 1840 by Ger. chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein (1799-1868) from Gk. ozon, neute pr.p. of ozein "to smell." So called for its peculiar odor.

ozone hole
  سوراخِ اُزون   
surâx-e ozon (#)

Fr.: trou d'ozone   

Not really a "hole," but a region of exceptionally depleted ozone in the stratosphere over the Antarctic that happens at the beginning of Southern Hemisphere spring (August-October). It was first noticed in the 1970s by a research group from the British Antarctic Survey.

ozone; → hole.

ozone layer
  لایه‌یِ اُزون   
lâye-ye ozon (#)

Fr.: couche d'ozone   

An atmospheric layer that contains a high proportion of oxygen that exists as ozone. It acts as a filtering mechanism against incoming ultraviolet radiation. It is located between the troposphere and the stratosphere, around 15 to 20 kilometers above the Earth's surface.

ozone; → layer.

ozone shield
  سپرِ اُزون   
separ-e ozon (#)

Fr.: bouclier d'ozone   

The ozone layer within the stratosphere that filters out potentially lethal intensities of ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.

ozone; shield, from O.E. scield, scild, related to sciell "seashell, eggshell," from P.Gmc. *skeldus (cf. Du. schild, Ger. Schild, Goth. skildus); PIE base *(s)kel- "to cut."

Separ "shield," from Mid.Pers. spar "shield;" cf. Skt. phalaka- "board, lath, leaf, shield," phálati "(he) splits;" Gk. aspalon "skin, hide," spolas "flayed skin," sphalassein "to cleave, to disrupt;" O.H.G. spaltan "to split;" Goth. spilda "board;" PIE base *(s)p(h)el- "to split, to break off;" → ozone.

P Cygni profile
  فراپال ِ P Cygni   
farâpâl-e P Cygni

Fr.: profil P Cygni   

A feature in a stellar spectrum showing strong hydrogen and helium emission lines with absorption lines on their blueward wing. This line profile indicates a strong outflow of matter from a star. → inverse P Cygni line profile.

After → P Cygni star.

P Cygni star
  ستاره‌ی ِ P Cygni   
setâre-ye P Cygni

Fr.: étoile P Cygni   

1) A variable star in the constellation → Cygnus, and one of the most luminous stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. It is a → Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) star of → spectral type B2 Ia located about 7000 light-years away. It was unknown until the 17th century, when it suddenly brightened to third magnitude. It briefly disappeared and returned, and today has a magnitude of about 4.8.
2) A member of a class of high-luminosity, early-type stars, in which spectral lines have a characteristic → P Cygni profile.

P, letter of alphabet; Cygni, pertaining to → Cygnus; → star.

p mode
  ترز ِ p، مُد ِ ~   
tarz-e p, mod-e ~

Fr.: mode p   

Acoustic waves trapped inside stars, which act as a resonating cavity, exhibiting millions of oscillation modes or standing waves. Same as → pressure mode. P-mode oscillations in the Sun have frequencies in the 0.2-5.5 mHz range. They are particularly intense in the 2-4 mHz range, where they are often referred to as solar "5-minute oscillations." See also → pulsation mode.

P, referring to pressure; → mode.

P-symmetry
  همامونی ِ همالی   
hamâmuni-ye hamâli

Fr.: symétrie de parité   

Same as → parity symmetry.

parity; → symmetry.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>