An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
capacitor
  گنجانگر   
gonjângar

Fr.: condensateur   

A device for storing electric charge. The simplest sort of capacitors consists of two parallel, conductive plates having equal amounts of opposite charges and separated by a → dielectric material. When a capacitor is fully charged there is a → potential difference between its plates. The larger the area of the plates and/or the smaller the separation between them the greater will be the charge that the capacitor can hold and the greater will be its → capacitance. The actual charge Q on the plates of a capacitor is given by: Q = C . V, where C is the capacitance and V the → voltage.

From capacit-, from → capacity + → -or.

From gonjân transitive stem of gonjidan "to be contained; to hold exactly; to be filled," → capacity, + -gar, → -or.

capacity
  گنجایش   
gonjâyeš (#)

Fr.: capacité   

The ability to receive or contain.
Electricity: → capacitance.

From M.Fr. capacité, from L. capacitatem, from capax "able to hold much," from capere "to take, grasp."

Gonjâyeš "capacity, holding, containing," from gonjdan "to be contained; to hold exactly; to be filled;" Mid.Pers. winj- "to be contained;" Proto-Iranian *uiac-/*uic-; cf. Skt. vyac- "to contain, encompass," vyás- "extent, content, extension;" L. uincire "to bind."

Capella (α Aurigae)
  بزبان، عیوق   
Bozbân (#), Ayyuq (#)

Fr.: Capella   

The sixth brightest star in the sky, Capella lies in the Northern Hemisphere → constellation  → Auriga. Also known as HD 34029 = HR 1708 = HIP 24608. Capella lies about 42 → light-years away (13.159 ± 0.015 → parsecs). Its → apparent visual magnitude is V = 0.07. A → spectroscopic binary, it consists of a pair of G8 III and G0 III → giants with an → orbital period of 104 days. The more evolved former/→ primary star has a slightly larger mass and luminosity (2.6 Msun and 79 Lsun) than that of the latter/→ secondary star (2.5 Msun and 73 Lsun). The primary is a typical late G giant presumably in the He-burning stage (→ red clump), which is lithium deficient and a slow rotator as other normal giants. In contrast, the secondary is a fast rotator (projected rotational velocity is v_e sin i ~ 35 km s-1) with high stellar activity (characterized by conspicuous chromospheric emission lines in UV) and shows a remarkably strong Li line, which indicates that the initial Li content is almost retained without being diluted (the surface Li composition for the secondary is ~100 times higher than that for the primary). That is, the secondary star belongs to the unusual group of Li-rich giants (see, e.g., Takeda et al., 2018, ApJ 862, 57 and Torres et al., 2015, ApJ 807, 26).

From L. capella "little she-goat," diminutive of caper "goat."

Bozbân "goat keeper" (Biruni, A.D. 973-1048, in his Tafhim), from boz, → goat, + -bân prefix denoting "keeper."
Ayyuq, loan from Ar.

capillarity
  مویینگی   
muyinegi (#)

Fr.: capillarité   

Same as → capillary action.

capillary; → -ity.

capillary
  مویین، مویینه   
muyin (#), muyiné (#)

Fr.: capillaire   

1) Resembling a strand of hair; hairlike.
2) Pertaining to or occurring in or as if in a tube of fine bore.
3) Physics: Pertaining to → capillarity.
4) Anatomy: One of the minute blood vessels between the terminations of the arteries and the beginnings of the veins (Dictionary.com).

From L. capillaris "pertaining to hair," from capillus "hair."

Muyin, muyiné, from mu(y), → hair.

capillary action
  ژیرش ِ مویینه، مویینگی   
žireš-e muyiné, muyinegi

Fr.: capillarité   

The ability of a → liquid to → flow in a → narrow space, such as a thin → tube, without the assistance of, and in opposition to, external forces like → gravity. Also called → capillarity. It occurs because of intermolecular → attractive forces between the liquid and solid surrounding surfaces. If the diameter of the tube is sufficiently small, then the combination of → surface tension (which is caused by → cohesion within the liquid) and → adhesion (between the liquid and the → container) acts to lift the liquid. The capillarity of the liquid is high when adhesion is greater than cohesion. For example, water in a thin glass tube has strong → adhesive forces due to the hydrogen bonds that form between the water molecules and the oxygen atoms in the glass wall (made of → silica, SiO2). In contrast, mercury is characterized by stronger cohesion, and hence its capillarity is much lower.

capillary; → action.

Capricorn, Tropic of
  هورگردِ وهیگ   
hurgard-e vahig

Fr.: Tropique du Capricorne   

Tropic of Capricorn.

Capricornus.

Capricornus
  وهیگ   
vahig

Fr.: Capricorne   

The Sea Goat. The smallest → constellation of the → Zodiac, lying in the Southern Hemisphere at approximately R.A. 21h, Dec. -20°. Abbreviation Cap; genitive form Capricorni.

L. Capricornus "horned like a goat," from caper "goat" + cornu "horn" (Gk. karnon, Skt. srnga-, Av. sru-, srvâ-, Mid.Pers. sruw, Mod.Pers. soru, P.Gmc. *khurnaz, Ger. Horn, E. horn, PIE *ker- "head, horn, top, summit"), a translation of Gk. Aigokheros, the name of the constellation.

Vahig, Mid.Pers. "goat," the name of the Capricorn sign in Mid.Pers. texts, Mod.Pers. bahi, as mentioned by Biruni in his Athar al-Baqia written around A.D. 1000.

caption
  کپش   
kapeš

Fr.: légende   

1) A title or explanation for a picture or illustration, especially in a magazine.
2) A heading or title, as of a chapter, article, or page (Dictionary.com).

M.E. capcio(u)n "taking, seizure," from capcion "arrest, capture, imprisonment," or directly from L. caption-, from capt(us) "taken," → capture.

Kapéš "taking, capture," verbal noun from kapidan "to seize, take, capture," related to qâpidan, qâp zadan "to rob, to seize," Malâyeri qapâl "robbing, seizure, robbing," probably related to L. capere, → capture.

capture
  گیر‌افت، گیر‌اندازی   
gir-oft, gir-andâzi (#)

Fr.: capture   

The process in which an atomic, nuclear, or astronomical system acquires an additional particle or body.

From M.Fr. capture "a taking," from L. captura "a taking," from captus p.p. of capere "to take, hold, seize;" PIE base *kap- "to grasp" (cf. Skt. kapati "measure equal to the capacity of the hollows of the two hands joined;" Gk. kaptein "to swallow;" O.Ir. cacht "servant-girl," literally "captive;" Goth. haban "have, hold;" O.E. habban, E. have "to have, hold;" probably Mod.Pers. qâp-, qâpidan, kapidan "to seize, rob").

Gir-oft, composite verb from gir + oft. Gir "take, seize, hold," from gereftan, from O.Pers./Av. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha- "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE *ghrebh- "to seize." Oft, from oftâtan "to fall; to befal, happen," Mid.Pers. opastan, Av. pat- " to fly, fall, rush," Skt. patati "he flies, falls," L. petere "to fall, rush out," Gk. piptein "to fall," PIE base *pet- "to fly, to rush." Gir-andâzi, from gir + andâzi, verbal noun from gir-andâxtan "to throw, cast; to do, make."

carbo-
  کربو-   
karbo-

Fr.: carbo-   

A combining form used in the names of → chemical compounds in which → carbon is present. Also, especially before a vowel, carb-.

From → carbon.

carbohydrate
  گلوسید   
glusid

Fr.: glucide, hydrate de carbone   

A molecular compound made from just three → chemical elements: → carbon, → hydrogen, and → oxygen. Carbohydrates have the general molecular formula CxH2yOy, and thus were once thought to represent "hydrated carbon." However, the arrangement of atoms in carbohydrates has little to do with → water molecules. Carbohydrates are a source of energy for the body. They include sugars, starches, cellulose and many other compounds found in living organisms. In their basic form, carbohydrates are simple sugars or monosaccharides.

carbo-; → hydrate.

carbon
  کربون   
karbon (#)

Fr.: carbone   

Nonmetallic chemical element; symbol C. → Atomic number 6; → atomic weight 12.011; → melting point about 3,550°C; → boiling point 4,827°C. The most abundant isotope of carbon is 12C. Carbon is one of the most important elements for life. The burning of carbon in the form of coal and oils has been essential in the development of industrial societies. It is the element that hardens → steel and the sole element in → diamonds. The carbon in nature is produced inside massive stars. → triple-alpha process; → Hoyle state.

Carbon, from Fr. carbone, coined by Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) to distinguish it from charbon (Fr.) "charcoal," from L. carbo (genitive carbonis) "a coal, charcoal."

carbon burning
  سوزش ِ کربون   
suzeš-e karbon

Fr.: combustion du carbon   

The stage in the evolution of a star after → helium burning when the core of the star consists mainly of carbon and oxygen. In stars of mass greater than about 8 solar masses, whose cores reach a temperature above 5 × 108 K and density above 3 × 109 kg m-3, carbon burning can begin via reactions such as the following:
12C + 12C → 20Ne + 4He
12C + 12C → 23Na + p
12C + 12C → 23Mg + n.
The time-scale for this phase of → nucleosynthesis is of order of five hundred years.

carbon; → burning.

carbon crisis
  پرژنه‌ی ِ کربون   
paržane-ye karbon

Fr.: crise du carbone   

A problem raised in the past by observations suggesting that the amount of carbon necessary for standard → dust models was larger than what actually observed for the → interstellar medium (ISM) (Snow & Witt 1995). The problem was especially acute for the → 2175 A bump in the ultraviolet part of the → extinction curve. The so-called "crisis" was finally solved by, on the one hand, revising downward the → solar abundances, thought to represent the ISM abundances (Asplund et al. 2009, arXiv:0909.0948, and references therein), and, on the other hand, revising upward the ISM carbon abundances (Sofia et al., 2011, AJ 141, 22S).

carbon; → crisis.

carbon cycle
  چرخه‌ی ِ کربون   
carxe-ye karbon (#)

Fr.: cycle du carbone   

1) A complex series of processes through which all the carbon atoms on Earth is cycled through the air, ground, plants, animals, and fossil fuels. During the cycle, plants absorb → carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and through → photosynthesis incorporate the associated carbon atoms into sugars and other molecules necessary for growth. Plants return carbon atoms back to the atmosphere in the form of CO2. However, much of the carbon absorbed remains "locked up" in the living organisms until decomposition or fire releases it back to the atmosphere.
2) For nuclear fusion in stars → CNO cycle.

carbon; → cycle.

carbon dioxide
  دی‌اکسید ِ کربون، گاز کربونیک   
dioksid-e karbon, gâz karbonik (#)

Fr.: dioxyde de carbone   

CO2, also called carbonic acid gas. A colorless gas which occurs in the atmosphere playing an essential part in animal respiration and the growth of green plants. → photosynthesis, → carbon cycle. It is formed by the → oxidation of carbon and carbon compounds. Carbon dioxide is the most important → greenhouse gas produced by human activities, primarily through the combustion of fossil fuels. Its concentration in the Earth's atmosphere has risen by more than 30% since the Industrial Revolution. CO2 forms a solid at -78.5 °C at atmospheric pressure, and is used as a refrigerant in this form as a dry ice for the preservation of frozen foods. As carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air and does not support combustion, it is used in fire extinguishers.
CO2 is present in the → interstellar medium and is one of the main → molecules in → comets.

carbon; → dioxide.

carbon monoxide (CO)
  مونوکسید ِ کربون   
monoksid-e karbon (#)

Fr.: monoxyde de carbone   

A colorless, odorless, very poisonous gas which burns in air with a bright blue flame to form → carbon dioxide. CO gives rise to a violent explosion when ignited in air in certain proportions. It occurs in coal gas and in the exhaust fumes of motor engines. Melting point -207 °C; boiling point -191.1 °C.
Carbon monoxide is the most important → molecule found in the → interstellar medium, and is produced through several chemical reactions, → CO formation. It was discovered in 1970 by R. Wilson and A. Penzias of Bell Laboratories, using the 11-m telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in the direction of the → Orion nebula. Because the CO line is so intense and widely distributed in space, this molecule is a most useful tool for tracing the ISM. In addition, measurement of its rare isotopes have shown that the main line 12C16O (wavelength 2.6 mm, 115 GHz) is → optically thick, that is the → column density of the molecule is so high that the material becomes opaque at the transition frequency. Moreover, the upper-energy levels of the CO molecule are easily excited by collision with → molecular hydrogen. The combination of high → optical depth and the ease of → excitation imply that CO emission brightness will accurately reflect the local gas temperature. CO is also one of the principal molecules detected in → comet nuclei.

carbon; → mono-; → oxide.

carbon star
  ستاره‌ی ِ کربونی   
setâre-ye karboni

Fr.: étoile carbonée   

A class of → red giant stars whose spectra show strong → molecular bands of → carbon compounds.

carbon; → star.

carbon-14
  کربن-۱۴   
karbon-14

Fr.: carbon-14   

A radioactive isotope of carbon, whose nucleus contains 6 protons and 8 neutrons; also called → radiocarbon. 14C is naturally produced in the atmosphere when a neutron created by a cosmic ray hits the nucleus of an atom of nitrogen-14. The nucleus absorbs the neutron and ejects a proton, thereby transforming itself into 14C. It decays back to nitrogen, with a half-life is 5730 years, after emitting an electron (146C → 147N + e- + νe). See also → radiocarbon dating.

carbon; → four + -teen, an inflected form of the root of → ten.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>