An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
polarized light
  نور ِ قطبیده   
nur-e qotbidé (#)

Fr.: lumière polarisée   

Electromagnetic radiation in the optical region which has undergone → polarization.

Past participle of → polarize; → light.

polarizer
  قطبنده   
qotbandé (#)

Fr.: polariseur   

An optical device capable of transforming natural light into polarized light, usually by selective transmission of polarized rays.

Agent noun of → polarize.

polarizing angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ قطبش   
zâviye-ye qotbeš (#)

Fr.: angle de polarisation   

The angle of → incidence for which the reflected light is completely polarized. Also called the → Brewster angle and → polarization angle. See also → Brewster's law.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → angle.

polarizing filter
  پالایه‌ی ِ قطبنده   
pâlâye-ye qotbandé (#)

Fr.: filtre polarisant   

A filter that polarizes light passing through it.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → filter.

polarizing prism
  منشور ِ قطبنده   
manšur-e qotbandé

Fr.: prisme polarisant   

A prism that is used to produce or analyze plane-polarized light.

Polarizing, adj. of → polarize; → prism.

pole
  قطب   
qotb (#)

Fr.: pôle   

1) Either extremity of the axis of the Earth or of any spherical body.
2) Either of the two regions or parts of an electric battery, magnet, or the like, at which the magnetic flux density is concentrated.
3) → pole of a mirror.
4) The fixed point in a system of polar coordinates that serves as the origin.

M.E., from L. polus "end of an axis, the sky," from Gk. polos "pivot, pole," polein "move around;" from PIE base *kwel- "to turn, move around, sojourn, dwell;" cognate with Pers. carx "every thing performing a circulatory motion; a wheel; a cart;" Av. caxra- "wheel," caraiti "he moves, approaches;" cf. Skt. cakra- "wheel, circle; cycle," carati "he moves, wanders;" Gk. kyklos "circle, wheel" (loaned L.L. cyclus); L. colere "to dwell in, to cultivate, move around," colonus "farmer, settler;" O.E. hweol "wheel;" Rus. koleso "wheel."

Qotb, from Ar. quTb.

pole of a mirror
  قطب ِ آینه   
qotab-e âyene

Fr.: pôle de mirroir   

The point where the → principal axis passes through the mirror.

pole; → mirror.

pole star
  ستاره‌ی ِ قطبی   
setâre-ye qotbi (#)

Fr.: étoile polaire   

A star that lies along the Earth's → rotation axis. The term usually refers to the star → Polaris, which is the current → North Celestial Pole star. The → South Celestial Pole is not currently associated with any bright star. See also: → North Pole Star, → South Pole Star.

pole; → star.

polhode
  قطبراه   
qotbrâh

Fr.: polhodie   

Mechanics: For a rotating rigid body not subject to external torque, the closed curve described on the → inertia ellipsoid by the intersection with this ellipsoid of an axis parallel to the angular velocity vector and through the center.
Astro.: The path described by the North pole of the Earth in a reference frame attached to the Earth. The rotation axis of our planet is not fixed with respect to the Earth's crust. It describes a motion within a square with an amplitude reaching 20 m.

Polhode, from Fr. polhodie, coined by Louis Poinsot (1777-1859), a French mathematician and physicist, the inventor of geometrical mechanics, from → pole + Gk. hodos "way."

Qotbrâh, from gotb, → pole, + râh "way, path" (from Mid.Pers. râh, râs "way, street," also rah, ras "chariot;" from Proto-Iranian *rāθa-; cf. Av. raθa- "chariot;" Skt. rátha- "car, chariot," rathyā- "road;" L. rota "wheel," rotare "to revolve, roll;" Lith. ratas "wheel;" O.H.G. rad; Ger. Rad; Du. rad; O.Ir. roth; PIE *roto- "to run, to turn, to roll").

policy
  کاراه، کارراه   
kârâh, kârrâh

Fr.: 1) ligne d'action; 2) politique   

1) A definite course of action adopted for the sake of expediency, facility, etc.
2) A course of action adopted and pursued by a government, ruler, political party, etc. (Dictionary.com).

M.E. policie "government, civil administration," from O.Fr. policie "political organization, civil administration," from L.L. politia "the state, civil administration," from Gk. politeia "state, administration, government, citizenship," from polites "citizen," from polis "city, state."

Kârâh, contraction of kâr râh, or râh-e kâr literally "way of doing, ~ ~ action," from râh, → way, + kâr "doing, action, → work."

policy maker
  کاراه‌پرداز   
kârâh pardâz

Fr.: responsable politique, décideur   

A person responsible for making policy, especially in government (Dictionary.com).

policy; → make; → -er.

polish
  نسوکردن   
nasu kardan

Fr.: polir   

To make smooth and glossy by rubbing with something.

M.E. polishen, from O.Fr. poliss-, pr.p. stem of polir "to polish," from L. polire "to polish, make smooth," of unknown origin.

Nasu kardan (Dehxodâ) "to polish, smooth, brighten," from nasu "smooth, bright" (mirror, sword), Mid.Pers. Manichean Parthian nswg "tender," from Proto-Iranian *ni-sau-, from prefix ni- "down," → ni- (PIE), + *sau- "to rub;" cf. Mod.Pers. sâbidan, variants sâyidan, pasâvidan "to touch, to rub;" Khotanese sauy- "to rub;" Sogdian ps'w- "to touch."

polishing
  نسوکرد   
nasukard

Fr.: polissage   

A stage in the process of mirror making after grinding that puts a highly finished, smooth and apparently amorphous surface on a mirror. → figuring; → grinding.

Verbal noun of → polish.

politic
  کاراهی   
kârâhi

Fr.: politique   

1) Shrewd or prudent in practical matters; tactful; diplomatic.
2) Contrived in a shrewd and practical way.
3) Political (Dictionary.com).

M.E. politik, from M.Fr. politique "political," from L. politicus "of citizens or the state, civil, civic," from Gk. politikos "of citizens, pertaining to the state and its administrators," from polites "citizen," from polis "city."

Kârâhi, adj. of kârâh, → policy.

political
  کاراهی   
kârâhi

Fr.: politique   

Of, pertaining to, or concerned with → politics.

politic; → -al.

political scientist
  کاراهیکدان   
kârâhikdân

Fr.: spécialiste en sciences politiques   

A person who studies the structure and theory of government and seeks practical and theoretical solutions to political problems.

political; → scientist.

Kârâhikdân, literally "politics scientist," from kârâhik, → politics, + dân "knower," present stem of dânestan, → science.

politician
  کاراهیگر   
kârâhigar

Fr.: politicien   

1) A person who is active in party politics.
2) A person who holds a political office.
3) A person skilled in political government or administration; statesman or stateswoman (Dictionary.com).

From politic + -ian an agent noun suffix.

Kârâhigar, from kârâhi-, contraction of kârâhik, → politics, because of the k-g succession, + -gar, → -or.

politics
  کاراهیک   
kârâhik

Fr.: politique   

1) The science or art of → political  → government.
2) The practice or profession of conducting political affairs.
3) Political → principles or → opinions (Dictionary.com).

From adj. → politic modeled on Aristotle's ta politika "affairs of state," the name of his book on governing and governments; → -ics.

Kârâhik, from kârâh, → policy, + -ik, → -ics.

pollen
  گرده   
gardé (#)

Fr.: pollen   

Powdery grains that contain the male reproductive cells of most plants (Dictionary.com).

From L. pollen "mill dust; fine flour," related to polenta "peeled barley," and probably to Gk. poltos "pap, porridge."

Gardé, from gard "powder, dust."

pollution
  آلودگی   
âludegi (#)

Fr.: pollution   

The introduction of harmful substances or light into the natural environment as a consequence of human activities. → light pollution.
The act of polluting or the state of being polluted.

M.E., from O.Fr., from L.L. pollutionem "defilement," from L. polluere "to soil, defile," from pol-, variant of por- "forth, forward, before" + -luere "smear," related to lutum "mud," and to lues "filth; plague, pestilence;;" cf. Gk. luma "filth, dirt, disgrace;" O.Ir. loth "mud, dirt;" Lith. lutynas "pool, puddle;" Pers. âludan, as below.

&ACIRC;ludegi, from âludan, âlây-"to pollute, soil, stain;" Mid.Pers. âlutan; from prefixed Proto-Iranian *ā-rūta-, from rav- "to stain, soil;" Mid.Pers. Manichean Parthian rwd "rascal;" PIE base *leu- "dirty; to soil;" cf. L. lues, as above.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>