An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
Lyman alpha emitting galaxy (LAEs)
  کهکشان ِ گسیلنده‌ی ِ لایمن-آلفا   
kahkešân-e gosilande-ye Lyman-alpha

Fr.: galaxie émettrice de Lyman alpha   

A galaxy belonging to an important population of low mass → star-forming galaxies at → redshift z > 2. Their number increases with redshift. A large fraction of the → dwarf starburst galaxies during the → reionization epoch may be intrinsic LAEs, but their Lyα photons can be scattered by the → neutral hydrogen (H I) in the → intergalactic medium (IGM), which makes Lyα line a powerful probe of reionization. These high-z LAEs have low → metallicity, low stellar masses, low dust → extinction, and compact sizes. The current best nearby analogs of high-z LAEs are → Green Pea galaxies (Yang et al, 2017, arxiv/1706.02819 and references therein).

Lyman alpha line; → emit; → -ing; → galaxy.

Lyman alpha forest
  جنگل ِ لایمن-‌آلفا   
jangal-e Lyman-alpha (#)

Fr.: forêt Lyman alpha   

The appearance of many differentially → redshiftedLyman alpha lines in → absorption in a → quasar's → spectrum, caused by intervening → hydrogen clouds along our → line of sight to the quasar.

Lyman; → forest.

Lyman alpha line
  خط ِ لایمن-آلفا، تان ِ ~ ~   
xatt-e Lyman-âlfâ (#), tân-e ~ ~

Fr.: raie Lyman alpha   

The spectral line in the → Lyman series which is associated with the → atomic transition between → energy levels n = 2 and n = 1. The corresponding wavelength is 1216 Å in the → far ultraviolet.

Lyman; → line.

Lyman alpha nebula
  میغ ِ لایمن-آلفا   
miq-e Lyman-âlfâ

Fr.: nébuleuse Lyman alpha   

A huge gaseous nebula (≥ 50 kpc) lying at high → redshifts (z ~ 2-6) and strongly emitting radiation due to the → Lyman alpha line (luminosities of  ≥ 1043 erg s-1) of hydrogen gas. Also called Lyman alpha blobs, they are thought to lie in massive (M ~ 1013 solar masses) → dark matter halos, which would subsequently evolve into those typical of rich → galactic clusters.

Lyman; → nebula.

Lyman band
  باند ِ لایمن   
bând-e Lyman

Fr.: bande de Lyman   

A sequence of → permitted transitions in the → ultraviolet from an → excited state (B) of the → molecular hydrogen (H2) to the electronic → ground state, with ΔE > 11.2 eV, λ < 1108Å (first → band head). When a hydrogen molecule absorbs such a photon, it undergoes a transition from the ground electronic state to the excited state (B). The following rapid → decay creates an → absorption band in that wavelength range. See also → Werner band. → Lyman-Werner photon.

Lyman (Th. Lyman, 1906, Astrophys. J. 23, 181); → band.

Lyman break
  بُره‌ی ِ لایمن   
bore-ye Lyman

Fr.: coupure de Lyman   

The dividing point in a galaxy's spectrum at wavelengths shorter than the → Lyman limit. Galaxies contain large amounts of → neutral hydrogen which is very effective at absorbing radiation shortward of 912 Å. Hence galaxies are virtually dark at these wavelengths.

Lyman; → break.

Lyman break galaxy
  کهکشان با بُره‌ی ِ لایمن   
kahkešân bâ bore-ye Lyman

Fr.: galaxie de la coupure de Lyman   

A star-forming galaxy at → high redshift affected by the → Lyman break. Such a galaxy is detected in the red (R, → photometric band) but not in the blue (U and B bands). At those high redshfits (above 2.5), the → Lyman limit at 912 Å is shifted between the U and B bands.

Lyman; → break; → galaxy.

Lyman continuum
  پیوستار ِ لایمن   
peyvastâr-e Lyman (#)

Fr.: continuum de Lyman   

A continuous range of wavelengths in the spectrum of hydrogen at wavelengths less than the → Lyman limit. The Lyman continuum results from transitions between the → ground state of hydrogen and → excited states in which the single electron is freed from the atom by photons having an energy of 13.6 eV or higher.

Lyman; → continuum.

Lyman continuum escape
  گریز ِ پیوستار ِ لایمن   
goriz-e peyvastâr-e Lyman

Fr.: échappement du continuum de Lyman   

The process whereby → Lyman continuum photons produced by → massive stars escape from a galaxy without being absorbed by interstellar material. Some observations indicate that the Lyman continuum escape fraction evolves with → redshift.

Lyman; → continuum; → escape.

Lyman ghost
  پرهیب ِ لایمن   
parhib-e Lyman (#)

Fr.: image fantôme de Lyman   

In spectroscopy, a false image of a spectral line formed by irregularities in the ruling of diffraction gratings.

Lyman, → ghost.

Lyman limit
  حد ِ لایمن   
hadd-e Lyman

Fr.: limite de Lyman   

The short-wavelength end of the hydrogen Lyman series, at 912 Å. Also called → Lyman continuum. It corresponds to the energy (13.6 eV) required for an electron in the hydrogen ground state to jump completely out of the atom, leaving the atom ionized.

Lyman; → limit.

Lyman series
  سری ِ لایمن   
seri-ye Lyman (#)

Fr.: séries de Lyman   

A series of lines in the spectrum of hydrogen, emitted when electrons jump from outer orbits to the first orbit. The Lyman series lies entirely within the ultraviolet region. The brightest lines are Lyman-alpha at 1216 Å, Lyman-beta at 1026 Å, and Lyman-gamma at 972 Å.

Lyman; → series.

Lyman-Werner photon
  فوتون ِ لایمن-ورنر   
foton-e Lyman-Werner

Fr.: photon de Lyman-Werner   

An → ultraviolet photon with an energy between 11.2 and 13.6 eV, corresponding to the energy range in which the Lyman and Werner absorption bands of → molecular hydrogen (H2) are found (→ Lyman band, → Werner band). The first generation of stars produces a background of Lyman-Werner radiation which can → photodissociate molecular hydrogen, the key → cooling agent in metal free gas below 104 K. In doing so, the Lyman-Werner radiation field delays the collapse of gaseous clouds, and thus star formation. After more massive → dark matter clouds are assembled, atomic line cooling becomes effective and H2 can begin to shield itself from Lyman-Werner radiation.

Lyman; → Werner band; → photon.

Lynx
  سیاهگوش   
Siyâhguš (#)

Fr.: Lynx   

The Lynx. A faint → constellation in the northern hemisphere that lies between → Auriga to the west and → Ursa Major to the east, at about 8h right ascension, 45° north declination. Abbreviation: Lyn; genitive: Lyncis.

From L. lynx, from Gk. lynx, probably from PIE *leuk-, → light, in reference to its gleaming eyes or its ability to see in the dark (cf. Lith. luzzis, O.H.G. luhs, Ger. Luchs, O.E. lox, Du. los, Swed. lo "lynx").

Siyâhguš "lynx," literally "black ear," from siyâh "black," from Mid.Pers. siyâ, siyâk, siyâvah "black," Av. sâma-, sayâva- "black, dark," cf. Skt. syama-, syava- "black, brown," Gk. skia "shadow" + guš, → ear.

Lyot division
  شکاف ِ لی‌یو   
šekâf-e Liyot (#)

Fr.: division de Lyot   

In Saturn's rings, the gap between rings B and C.

Named after Bernard Lyot (1897-1952), French astronomer who discovered the division. He was also a distinguished solar observer and invented (1930) the → coronagraph; → division.

Lyot filter
  پالایه‌ی ِ لی‌یو   
pâlâye-ye Lyot (#)

Fr.: filtre de Lyot   

A type of narrow-band filter consisting of a series of birefringent crystals and polarizers invented by the French astronomer Bernard Lyot (1897-1952) for isolating and observing significant wavelengths of solar light.

Lyot division; → filter.

Lyra
  چنگ   
Cang (#)

Fr.: Lyre   

The Lyre. A small, bright constellation in the northern hemisphere at about 19h right ascension, 40° declination. The brightest star in Lyra is → Vega.

L. lyra, from Gk. lyra, a foreign word of uncertain origin.

Cang "harp," frpm Mid.Pers. cang "harp."

Lyrids
  چنگیان   
Cangiyân (#)

Fr.: Lyrides   

A meteor shower that occurs between 18 and 24 April. Its radiant is in the constellation → Lyra.

Lyra + → -ids.

Lysithea (Jupiter X)
  لوسیته‌آ   
Lusitea (#)

Fr.: Lysithéa   

The eleventh of Jupiter's known satellites; it is 36 km across and orbits Jupiter at a distance of about 11,720,000 km with a period of 259 days. It was discovered by S. Nicholson in 1938.

Lysithea was a daughter of Oceanus and one of Zeus' lovers.

M dwarf
  کوتوله‌ی ِ M   
kutule-ye M

Fr.: naine M   

A star whose spectrum is dominated by the absorption bands of → titanium oxide (TiO) and → vanadium oxide (VO) and has many neutral metal lines. The → effective temperature of M dwarfs ranges from about 3850 to 2600 K. They are low mass stars with masses ranging from 0.6 times that of the Sun at spectral type M0 to less than 0.1 → solar masses. M dwarfs are very abundant, they account for about 70-80% of stars in the → Galactic disk. The nearest star to the Sun, → Proxima Centauri, is an M dwarf.

M, letter of alphabet in the → Harvard classification; → dwarf.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>