# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
 linear programming   برنامه‌سازی ِ خطی   barnâme-sâzi-ye xatti (#)Fr.: programmation linéaire   A procedure for finding the maximum or minimum of a → linear function where the → arguments are subject to linear → constraints. For problems involving more than two variables or problems involving a large number of constraints, solution methods used are those that are adaptable to computers. A well-known such → algorithm is the → simplex method.→ linear; → programmings. linear regression   وایازی ِ خطی   vâyâzi-ye xattiFr.: regression linéaire   In statistics, a regression method that establishes a linear relationship between two random variables.→ linear; → regression. linear size   اندازه‌ی ِ خطی   andâze-ye xattiFr.: taille linéaire   The real, physical size, as opposed to angular size.→ linear; → size. linear system   راژمان ِ خطی   râžmân-e xattiFr.: système linéaire   Physics: A → dynamical system whose evolution is a linear process. If a change in any variable at some initial time produces a change in the same or some other variable at some later time, twice as large a change at the same initial time will produce twice as large a change at the same later time.→ linear; → system. linear velocity   تندای ِ خطی   tondâ-ye xattiFr.: vitesse linéaire   The rate of change of the position of an object that is traveling along a straight path. In other words, the velocity of an object when its moving direction is not changing. For a given → angular velocity (ω), the linear velocity v of the particle is directly proportional to the distance of the particle from the center of the circular path: v = ω ×r.→ linear; → velocity. linearity   خطیگی   xattigiFr.: linéarité   The property, condition, or state of being linear. Math.: A relationship between two variables so that when plotted on a graph they yield a straight line.→ linear; → -ity. linearization   خطش، خطانش   xatteš, xattânešFr.: linéarisation   A process of reduction to linear form by appropriate change of variables or by approximation.Verbal noun of → linearize. linearize   خطیدن، خطانیدن   xattidan, xattânidanFr.: linéariser   To make linear; give linear form to.→ linear + → -ize. linearized differential equation   هموگش ِ دگرسانه‌ای ِ خطی   hamugeš-e degarsâneyi-ye xattiFr.: équation différentielle linéarisée   A differential equation that has been derived from an original nonlinear equation.Linearized, p.p. of → linearize; → differential; → equation. linearly   خطانه   xattânéFr.: linéairement   In a manner characterized by first-degree algebraic terms.Adverb of → linear. linearly dependent   خطانه وابسته   xattâné vâbastéFr.: linéairement dépendant   A set of objects x1, x2, ..., xn (→ vectors, → matrices, → polynomials, etc.) on a given set if there is a linear combination of them: a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn, which is zero, but at least one of the coefficients is non-zero. For example the binomials (2x + y) and (6x + 3y) are linearly dependent, since 3(2x + y) - (6x + 3y) = 0.→ linearly; → dependent. linearly independent   خطانه ناوابسته   xattâné nâvâbastéFr.: linéairement indépendant   1) A set of objects x1, x2, ..., xn (→ vectors, → matrices, → polynomials, etc.) if it si not → linearly dependent. 2) Of two particular solutions (y1, y2) of a → homogeneous linear differential equation of the second order (y'' + a1 y' + a2y = 0) on an interval [a, b], if their ratio in this interval is not a constant: y1/y2≠ constant.→ linearly; → independent. linearly polarized light   نور ِ قطبیده‌ی ِ خطی   nur-e qotbide-ye xattiFr.: lumière polarisée linéairement   Light exhibiting → linear polarization.→ linearly; → polarized; → light. LINER   لاینر   lâyner (#)Fr.: LINER   A type of galactic nucleus that is defined by its spectral line emission. The lines are very weak, the most prominent ones being from low ionization states (such as [O II], [N II], [S II] and [OI]). There is so far no generally accepted interpretation of the spectra of liners. It is likely that galaxies of different histories may have their nuclei with liner-type spectra. → retired galaxy.Short for → Low-Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region. The term liner was first introduced by T. M. Heckman (1980, A&A 87, 152). linewidth   خط-پهنا، پهنای ِ خط   xatt-pahnâ (#), pahnâ-ye xatt (#)Fr.: largeur de raie   1) The range of frequencies or wavelengths over which radiations are absorbed or emitted in a transition between a specific pair of atomic energy levels. The full width is determined between half-power points of the line. 2) In a laser, the range of frequencies over which most of the beam energy is distributed.→ line; → width. linguistic variable   ورتنده‌ی ِ زبانیک   vartande-ye zabânikFr.: variable linguistique   One of several → input or → output variables of a → fuzzy logic system whose values are → words or → sentences from a natural language, instead of numerical values.→ linguistic; → variable. linguistics   زبانیک، زبانشناسی   zabânik (#), zabânšenâsi (#)Fr.: linguistique   The study of the structure and evolution of → language, including → phonetics, → morphology, syntax, semantics.From linguistic, from linguistic, from linguist, from L. lingua, → language, + → ics.Zabânik, from zabân, → language, + -ik, → -ics. Zabânšenâsi, from zabân + šenâsi, → -logy. link   پیوند   peyvand (#)Fr.: lien   1) General: Anything serving to connect one part or thing with another; a bond or tie. 2) A direct connection in a hypertext document to the Internet address (URL) of another document.From M.E. link(e), of Scandinavian origin; akin to O.Dan. lænkia "chain;" Old Norse hlekkr "chain;" Ger. Gelenk "joint."Peyvand "join, union," from peyvandidan, peyvastan "to join, connect;" Mid.Pers. peywand, peywastan "connection, offspring; to join, connect, attach," from *pati-basta-, from suffix pati- (Mid.Pers. pât-,from O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of," Av. paiti, akin to Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite," Pali pati-, Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + basta- "tied, shut" (Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind), cf. Skt. prati-bandh- "to tie." linkage   پیوند، هم‌پیوندی   peyvand, ham-payvandi (#)Fr.: liaison   1) General: An act or mode of linking; the fact of being linked. 2) Physics: The amount of magnetic flux passing through a coil of wire or other electric circuit.From → link + -age a suffix of abstract nouns from O.Fr.From ham-, → com-, + peyvand, → link, + noun suffix -y. lion   شیر   šir (#)Fr.: lion   A large, usually tawny-yellow cat, Panthera leo, native to Africa and southern Asia, having a tufted tail and, in the male, a large mane (dictionary.com).M.E., from O.Fr., variant of leon, from L. leon- (stem of leo), from Gk. leon.Mid.Pers. šagr "lion;" cf. Parth. šarg; Sogd. šarγu "lion;" its O.Pers. and Av. forms are not extant. Šir may be cognate with Skt. kēsarin- "lion; literally maned," from kēsar- "mane;" PIE *kaisar- "mane; hairs." If so, šir could be related to PIE *kaisaraka-, provided that the the initial *kai- is dropped and *saraka- has transformed in *sarg, šarg, šir.