An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
space-time
  فضا-زمان   
fazâ-zamân (#)

Fr.: espace-temps   

A physical entity resulting from the union of space and time concepts. In its most simple version space-time is the four-dimensional continuum, having three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate, in which any → event or physical object is located. In → special relativity it is Minkowski's flat space-time. In → general relativity, it is described by a curved entity characterized by a → metric. Free-fall motion describes the → geodesic of this curved space-time. It may have additional dimensions in the context of speculative theories, such as → string theory.

space; → time.

space-time curvature
  خمیدگی ِ فضا-زمان   
xamidegi-ye fazâ-zamân

Fr.: courbure de l'espace-temps   

curvature of space-time.

space; → time; → curvature.

space-time diagram
  نمودار ِ فضا-زمان   
nemudâr-e fazâ-zamân (#)

Fr.: diagramme espace-temps   

A simple way of representing the → space-time continuum, usually including time and only one spatial dimension. The curve of a particle's equation of motion on a space-time diagram is called a → world line. Same as → Minkowski diagram.

space; → time; → diagram.

space-time interval
  اندروار ِ فضا-زمان   
andarvâr-e fazâ-zamân

Fr.: intervalle espace-temps   

1) In Einstein's → theory of relativity, ds2 = c2dt2 - dx2 - dy2 - dz2.
2) In → Newtonian mechanics, time interval: dt; space interval at fixed time: dl2 = dx2 + dy2 + dz2.

space-time; → interval.

spacecraft
  فضاناو   
fazânâv (#)

Fr.: vaisseau spatial   

A vehicle designed to travel or operate, with or without a → crew, in a controlled → flight pattern in space beyond the Earth's atmosphere or in → orbit around the Earth. Also called spaceship.

space; → craft.

spacelike
  فضاسان   
fazâsân

Fr.: genre espace   

Of, pertaining to, or describing an → event being outside the → light cone.

space; → like.

spacelike interval
  اندروار ِ فضاسان   
andarvâr-e fazâsân

Fr.: intervalle genre espace   

The → space-time interval between two → events if it is imaginary, i.e. ds2< 0.

spacelike; → interval.

spacetime
  فضا-زمان   
fazâ-zamân

Fr.: espace-temps   

space-time.

space; → time.

spade
  بیل   
bil (#)

Fr.: pelle   

A digging tool with a flat blade attached to a shaft so that it can be pushed into the ground with the foot.

M.E., from O.E. spadu; cognate with Gk. spathe "blade of a sword or oar."

Bil "spade," variants Kurd. bêr, Baluci bard, Gabri bard(a); Mid.Pers. bêl, bêr; Proto-Iranian *barda- metathesis of *badar-; cf. Av. vadar- "weapon" (Gershevitch 1962).

spall
  ۱) تریشه؛ ۲) تریشیدن   
1) terišé; 2) terišidan

Fr.: 1) éclat; 2) cliver   

1) A chip or splinter.
2) To break up into small chips, flakes, or splinters, or to cause to break off in flakes.

M.E. spalle "a chip," verb spald "to split," from M.L.G. spalden, cognate with O.H.G. spaltan "to split."

Terišé "a chip," from tarâšidan "to cut, hew; scape; shave;" Mid.Pers. tâšitan "to cut, cleave; create by putting together different elements;" Av. taš- "to cut off, fashion, shape, create," taša- "axe" (Mod.Pers. taš, tišé "axe"), tašan- "creator;" cf. Skt. taks- "to form by cutting, tool, hammer, form," taksan- "wood-cutter, carpenter;" Gk. tekton "carpenter," tekhne "art, skill, craft, method, system;" L. textere "to weave;" PIE *teks- "to fashion."

spallation
  تریشش   
tarišeš

Fr.: spallation   

A nuclear reaction in which a high energy particle that collides with a nucleus causes the target to eject several particles, thus changing both its mass number and its atomic number.

From → spall + -ation.

Verbal noun from terišidan, → spall.

span
  بازه   
bâzé (#)

Fr.: envergure   

1) Aeronautics: The distance between the wing tips of an airplane.
2) Math.: The smallest subspace of a → vector space that contains a given element or set of elements.

M.E. spanne, sponne, spayn; O.E. span(n), spon(n) "distance between the thumb and little finger of an extended hand;" cf. Ger. Spanne, Du. span.

Bâzé "extension of both arms when streched out," related to bâzu "arm" (Mid.Pers. bâzûk "arm;" Av. bāzu- "arm;" cf. Skt. bāhu- "arm, forearm;" Gk. pechys "forearm, arm, ell;" O.H.G. buog "shoulder;" Ger. Bug "shoulder;" Du. boeg; O.E. bôg, bôh "shoulder, bough;" E. bough " a branch of a tree;" PIE *bhaghu- "arm"); from Av. vībāzu- "fathom, measure of the outstretched arms."

spark
  اخگر، جرقه   
axgar (#), jaraqé (#)

Fr.: étincelle   

Visible disruptive discharge of electricity between two places at opposite high potential. It is preceded by ionization of the path.

M.E., from O.E. spearca; cf. M.L.G. sparke, M.Du. spranke.

Laki âger "fire accompanied by flame," Lori azgel daaneh-ye aatash-e sorx shodeh va godaaxteh Kurd. agir "fire" Gilaki val "prominence, flame" Tâleši kel "blazing flame" standard Pers. gorr Laki gorron "flame;" jaraqé, probably word made by sound imitation.

spark gap
  گاف ِ جرقه   
gâf-e jaraqé (#)

Fr.: éclateur   

A device consisting of two electrodes separated by a small gap that is filled by a gas, usually air. A high → potential difference applied to the electrodes ionizes the gas and current flows across it for a brief time causing a spark across the gap. Spark gaps have a wide application. As spark plugs, they are used to ignite a mixture of fuel and air in the piston cylinders of an internal combustion engine. The electricity is provided by the battery and ignition coil, and the spark timing is controlled by the distributor. Spark gaps are also used as safety devices on equipment to prevent damage from voltage surges.

spark; → gap.

spark spectrum
  بیناب ِ اخگر، ~ جرقه   
binâb-e axgar, ~ jaraqé

Fr.: spectre d'étincelle   

The emission spectrum produced through a gas or vapor as a result of a high-voltage discharge between metallic electrodes.

spark; → spectrum.

spatial coherence
  همدوسی ِ فضایی   
hamdusi-ye fazâyi

Fr.: cohérence spatiale   

In a wave train, a correlation between the phases of waves at points separated in space at a given time.

spatial; → coherence.

spatial resolution
  واگشود ِ فضایی   
vâgošud-e fazâyi

Fr.: résolution spatiale   

The smallest detail that can be seen in an image. Same as → angular resolution.

spatial; → resolution.

Spörer minimum
  کمینه‌ی ِ اشپورر   
kamine-ye Spörer

Fr.: minimum de Spörer   

A period of low → solar activity that lasted from about A.D. 1420 to 1570. It occurred before → sunspots had been studied, and was discovered by analysis of the proportion of carbon-14 in tree rings, which is strongly correlated with solar activity.

Named for the German astronomer Gustav Spörer (1822-1895); → minimum.

Spörer's law
  قانون ِ اشپورر   
qânun-e Spörer

Fr.: loi de Spörer   

The empirical law that predicts the variation of → sunspot latitudes during a → solar cycle. At the start of a sunspot cycle, sunspots tend to appear around 30° to 45° latitude on the Sun's surface. As the cycle progresses, they appear at lower and lower latitudes, until 5° to 10°, at the end of the cycle. This tendency is revealed on a → butterfly diagram. Although named after Gustav Spörer, the "law" was first discovered by Richard Carrington.

Sporer minimum; → law.

speak
  سخنیدن   
soxanidan (#), soxan goften (#)

Fr.: parler   

To utter words with the ordinary voice (not singing) to communicate; to talk.

From M.E. speken "to speak," from O.E. specan, alteration of earlier sprecan "to speak;" cf. Low Germ. spreken "to speak," Du. spreken, Ger. sprechen "to speak;" ultimately from PIE *spreg- "to make a sound, utter, speak."

From M.P. saxwanitan "to speak, to talk," → speech.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>