An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

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temporary
  تامنوار   
tâmenvâr

Fr.: temporaire   

Lasting, existing, serving, or effective for a time only; not permanent.

From L. temporarius "according to circumstances, of seasonal character, lasting a short time," from tempus (genitive temporis) "time, season."

Tâmenvâr, from tâmen "time", → temporal, + -vâr suffix denoting suiting, befitting, resembling, in the manner of.

temporize
  تامنیدن   
tâmenidan

Fr.: temporiser   

To be indecisive or evasive to gain time or delay acting (Dictionary.com).

From M.Fr. temporiser "to pass one's time, wait one's time," from M.L. temporizare "to pass time," from L. tempus (genitive temporis), → temporal.

Tâmenidan from tâmen "time," → temporal, + -idan, → -ize.

ten
  ده   
dah (#)

Fr.: dix   

A cardinal number, nine plus one.

M.E. ten(e), tenn(e), O.E. ten(e), tien(e); from P.Gmc. *tekhan (cf. O.S. tehan, O.N. tiu, Dan. ti, Du. tien, O.H.G. zehan, Ger. zehn "ten"), cognate with Pers. dah, as below.

Dah, from Mid.Pers. dah "ten;" Av. dasa "ten;" cf. Skt. dáśa- "ten;" Gk. deka "ten;" L. decem "ten;" O.Ir. deich; Lith. dešimtis "ten;" PIE base *dekm.

tense
  تنو   
tanu

Fr.: tendu   

Stretched tight, as a cord, fiber, etc.; drawn taut; rigid.

From L. tensus, p.p. of tendere "to stretch," → tension.

Tanu "stretched, strained," from tan + -u suffix of excess. The first element tan, from tanidan "to spin, twist, weave" (Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to spin, stretch;" tanoti "stretches," tantram "loom;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch"), Pers. târ "string," tân "thread," tur "fishing net, net, snare," and tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect) belong to this family; variants tanta "cobweb," tanadu, tafen, kartané, kârtané, kâtené, Pashtu tanistah "cobweb;" cf. Skt. tantu- "cobweb, thread, string").

tensile
  تنشی   
taneši (#)

Fr.: extensible   

Of or pertaining to → tension.

From M.L. tensilis "capable of being stretched," from L. tensus, p.p. of tendere "to stretch," → tension.

Taneši, related to taneš, → tension.

tensile force
  نیروی ِ تنشی   
niruy-e taneši

Fr.: force de traction   

The force tending to stretch (or produce tension in) an object

tensile; → force.

tension
  تنش   
taneš (#)

Fr.: tension   

General: The act of stretching or straining; the state of being stretched or strained.
Mechanics: The longitudinal deformation of an elastic body that results in its elongation.
Electricity: Voltage or potential; electromotive force.

M.E., from M.Fr. tension, from L. tensionem (nominative tensio) "a stretching," from tensus, p.p. of tendere "to stretch," cognate with Pers. taneš, as below.

Taneš, verbal noun from tanidan "to spin, twist, weave;" Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to spin, stretch;" tanoti "stretches," tantram "loom;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch"), Pers. târ "string," tân "thread," tur "fishing net, net, snare," and tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect) belong to this family; variants tanta "cobweb," tanadu, tafen, kartané, kârtané, kâtené, Pashtu tanistah "cobweb;" cf. Skt. tantu- "cobweb, thread, string."

tensor
  تانسور، تانگر   
tânsor, tângar

Fr.: tenseur   

A system of numbers or functions where components obey a certain law of transformation when the variables undergo a linear transformation. A tensor may consist of a single number, in which case it is referred to as a tensor of order zero, or simply a → scalar. The tensor of order one represents a → vector. Similarly there will be tensors of order two, three, and so on.
See also:
absolute tensor, → calculus of tensors, → contravariant tensor, → covariant tensor, → Einstein tensor, → energy-momentum tensor, → metric tensor, → order of a tensor, → relative tensor, → Ricci tensor, → Riemann curvature tensor, → scalar-tensor theory, → skew-symmetric tensor, → symmetric tensor, → tensor analysis, → tensor contraction, → tensor density, → tensor field, → tensor perturbation, → tensor rank, → tensor-vector-scalar (TeVeS) theory, → weight of a tensor.

Agent noun of tense (v.) → tension.

tensor analysis
  آ نالس ِ تانسوری، ~ ِ تانگری   
ânâlas-e tânsori

Fr.: analyse tensorielle   

A method of calculation in higher mathematics based on the properties of tensors.

tensor; → analysis.

tensor contraction
  ترنگش ِ تانسور   
terengeš-e tânsor

Fr.: contraction de tenseur   

An operation of tensor algebra that is obtained by setting unlike indices equal and summing according to a summation convention.

contraction; → tensor.

tensor density
  چگالی ِ تانسور   
cagâli-ye tânsor

Fr.: densité de tenseur   

A generalization of the tensor concept that like a tensor transforms, except for the appearance of an extra factor, which is the → Jacobian matrix of the transformation of the coordinates, raised to some power, in transformation law. The exponent, which is a positive or negative integer, is called the weight of the tensor density. → weight of a tensor density. Ordinary tensors are tensor densities of weight 0. Tensor density is also called → relative tensor.

tensor; → density.

tensor field
  میدان ِ تانسوری   
meydân-e tânsori

Fr.: champ tensoriel   

A field of space and time each point of which has multiple directionality, and is describable by a tensor function.

tensor; → field.

tensor perturbation
  پرتورش ِ تانسوری   
partureš-e tânsori

Fr.: perturbation tensorielle   

The perturbation in the → primordial Universe plasma caused by → gravitational waves. These waves stretch and squeeze space in orthogonal directions and bring about → quadrupole anisotropy in incoming radiation temperature.

tensor; → perturbation.

tensor rank
  رتبه‌ی ِ تانسور   
rotbe-ye tânsor

Fr.: rang de tenseur   

The total number of → contravariant and → covariant indices (→ index) of a → tensor.

tensor; → rank.

tensor-vector-scalar (TeVeS) theory
     

Fr.:   

A theory put forward to provide a basis for a relativistic generalization of the → MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) paradigm. TeVeS is based on three dynamical fields: a tensor field, a vector field, and a scalar field. In contrast to general relativity, it has two metrics, an Einstein metric and a physical metric. TeVeS has attracted considerable attention, since it can explain many galactic and cosmological observations without the need for → dark matter. Proposed by J. D. Bekenstein, 2004, "Relativistic gravitation theory for the modified Newtonian dynamics paradigm", Phys. Rev. D, 70, 083509, arXiv:astro-ph/0403694.

tensor; → vector; → scalar; → theory.

tephra
  تفرا   
tefrâ

Fr.: éjecta   

A general term for materials of all types and sizes that are ejected by volcanic eruptions. It includes particles as tiny as volcanic ash and as large as bombs and blocks.

From Gk. tephra "ashes."

tera- (T)
  ترا-   
terâ- (#)

Fr.: tera-   

Prefix denoting one million million (1012).

From Gk. teras "monster."

terbium
  تربیوم   
terbiom (#)

Fr.: terbium   

A metallic chemical element; symbol Tb. Atomic number 65; atomic weight 158.9254; melting point 1,356°C; boiling point 3,123°C; specific gravity about 8.25. Terbium was discovered by the Swedish surgeon and chemist Carl-Gustav Mosander in 1843 in an yttrium salt, which he resolved into three elements. He called one yttrium, a rose colored salt he called terbium and a deep yellow peroxide he called erbium.

From the "village of Ytterby" in Sweden, where the mineral ytterbite (the source of terbium) was first found.

term
  ترم   
tarm

Fr.: terme   

1) A word or group of words that has a precise meaning and expresses a definite idea, used in a particular science, art, or profession. See also → terminology; → determine.
2) Math.: In an expression, a number or a letter standing alone; or a combination of such representing a unit, e.g.: a, b, 5, 4ab, 3a/b.
3) Physics: A set of atomic states having a definite → configuration and → spin and → orbital angular momentum  → quantum numbers. In the → LS coupling scheme, the entity 2S+1LJ, in which 2S+1 is called the → multiplicity of the term.
4) Logic: The → subject or → predicate of a → categorical proposition. See also → syllogism.
5) In → first-order logic, an → individual constant, → individual variable, or → function.

M.E. terme, from O.Fr., from L. terminus "boundary, limit, end; boundary stone or marker," variant termen "boundary, end;" cognate with Gk. termon "limit, boundary;" Skt. tarman "the top of the sacrificial (usually tripod) post; passage;" Irish tearmann "a refuge, sanctuary, asylum;" this Irish word would point to the sacredness of the sacrificial post in primitive IE customs; Hittite tarma- "peg, plug, nail;" PIE base *ter- "to cross;" cf. Pers. tarm, târem, tarâ-, Av. tar- "to cross over," as below.

Tarm, variant târem "boundary, limit," more specifically "a wooden palisade to exclude people from a garden," also "a wooden building of a circular form with an arched roof" (cf. Irish tearmann, as above), Tabari talm "pole, stick" (that marks a boundary), Tâleši/Tâti talmi "pole, stick," Garkâni taram "lever," Lori, Laki tarm "poles fastened together in order to carry a corpse to the village cemetery;" O.Pers./Av. tar- "to cross over," O.Pers. vi-tar- "to go across," Mid.Pers. vitartan "to pass," Mod.Pers. gozar, gozaštan "to pass, cross;" cf. Skt. tarman "the top of the sacrificial post; passage," tar- "to pass (through), overcome," tárati "crosses, passes," tirás "through, across, beyond;" see also → trans-.

terminal
  ۱) پایانی؛ ۲) پایانه   
1) pâyâni; 2) pâyâné

Fr.: terminal   

1) Forming or found at the extreme point or limit of something, or relating to the very end of something.
2) Computers: An input/output device having a keyboard for communicating with a computer and usually a display.

M.E., from L. terminalis "pertaining to a boundary or end, final," from terminus "end, boundary line," → term.

Pâyâni, pâyâné, noun and adj. from pâyân "end, extremity; limit, boundary," from pâ(y) "foot; step" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad- "foot;" cf. Skt. pat; Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes, genitive pedis; P.Gmc. *fot; E. foot; Ger. Fuss; Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-).

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>