An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
monosemy
  تکچمی   
takcemi

Fr.: monosémie   

The fact of having only a single meaning. Same as → univocity. Compare with → polysemy.

From → mono- "single," + sem, from sema "sign," → semantic, + -y.

Takcemi, from tak-, → mono-, + cem, → meaning, + noun suffix -i.

monotheism
  یکتایزدان‌باوری، یکتاپرستی   
yektâ-yazdân-bâvari, yektâ-parasti (#)

Fr.: monothéisme   

The belief or doctrine that there is only one → God.

mono-; → theism.

monotonic
  یکنواخت   
yeknavâxt (#)

Fr.: monotone   

Of a mathematical function, either continuously increasing or decreasing.

From Fr. monotone, from Gk. monotonos "monotonous, of one tone," from monos, → mono- "single, alone" + tonos "tone" + → -ic.

Yeknavâxt "monotonous," from yek "one, single," + navâxt"rhythm," from navâxtan, navâzidan "to play an instrument; to gratify," navâ "music, song, melody;" Mid.Pers. nw'c "to treat kindly, honour," niwag "music, melody;" Proto-Iranian *ni-uac-, from *ni- (→ ni-) + *uac- "to speak, treat kindly," → word.

monsoon
  بادهای ِ موسمی   
bâdhâ-ye mowsemi (#)

Fr.: mousson   

A seasonal change in wind direction bringing dry air or heavy rain in India and nearby lands.

Monsoon, from Du. monssoen, from Port. monçao, from Ar. mausim "season." It was first applied to the winds over the Arabian Sea, which blow for six months from northeast and for six months from southwest, but it has been extended to similar winds in other parts of the world.

Bâd, → "wind;" mowsem, related to mowsem, from Ar. mausim, as above.

Monte Carlo Method
  روش ِ مونت‌کارلو   
raveš-e Monte Carlo

Fr.: méthode de Monte Carlo   

A computer-intensive technique that relies on repeated random sampling of a statistical population to compute its results. Monte Carlo simulation is often used for approximate numerical computations when application of strict methods requires too much calculation, or when it is infeasible or impossible to compute an exact result with a deterministic algorithm.

The term Monte Carlo was coined in the 1940s by physicists (Stanislaw Ulam, Enrico Fermi, John von Neumann, and Nicholas Metropolis) working on nuclear weapon projects in the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The name is a reference to a famous casino in Monaco which, it is said that, Ulam's uncle would borrow money to gamble at. → method.

month
  ماه   
mâh (#)

Fr.: mois   

A period of time based on the revolution of the Moon around the Earth. Several types of months are defined: → anomalistic month; → draconic month; → sidereal month; → synodic month; → tropical month.

O.E. monað, from P.Gmc. *mænoth- (O.N. manaðr, M.Du. manet, Du. maand, O.H.G. manod, Ger. Monat, Goth. menoþs "month"), related to *mænon-, → moon.

Mâh and mâng in Pers. are variants of the same term, the dominant form being mâh, while mâng (Av. from, see below) is used in classical literature as well as in some dialects: Tabari, Kurd. mâng, Laki, Tâti, Taeši mong, Šahmirzâdi, Sangesari mung; Mid.Pers. mâh "moon, month;" O.Pers. māha- "moon, month;" Av. māh- "month, moon," also māwngh-; cf. Skt. mās- "moon, month;" Gk. mene "moon," men "month;" L. mensis "month;" O.C.S. meseci, Lith. menesis "moon, month;" O.Ir. mi, Welsh mis, Bret. miz "month;" O.E. mona; E. moon, month; Ger. Mond, Monat; Du. maan; PIE base *me(n)ses- "moon, month."

Note: In Persian the same term, mâh, is used for two different, but related, concepts: moon and month. This was also the case for other IE languages, as shows the above etymology. However, other IE languages have evolved toward more accuracy by using different forms of the same initial term, as in E. moon / month or Ger. Mond / Monat. The Latin family uses two unrelated words, as in Fr. lune "moon" / mois "month" and Sp. luna / mes. An additional difficulty in present Pers. is that the adj. mâhi not only means "lunar" and "monthly" it also denotes "fish." For the sake of clarity and precision, this dictionary uses mângi for "lunar."

moon
  ماه، مانگ   
mâh (#), mâng (#)

Fr.: Lune   

1) Natural satellite of the Earth. Mass 7.35 x 1025 g = 1/81 or 0.0123 Earth's. Mean radius 1740 km = ~ 1/4 the Earth's; this relatively small size ratio makes the Earth-Moon system unique in the → solar system. Mean density 3.34 g cm-3. Mean distance from Earth 384,400 km. → Escape velocity 2.38 km s-1. → Surface gravity 162.2 cm s-2 = 0.165 Earth's. → Sidereal period 27d 7h 43m 11s. → Eccentricity 0.0549. → Inclination of → orbital plane to → ecliptic 5° 8' 43''. → Obliquity 6° 41'. → Synodic period 29d 12h 44m 2s.9. → Orbital velocity 1.02 km s-1. The Moon's average visual → Albedo is 0.12, a factor of three smaller than that of Earth. The Moon's → center of mass is displaced about 2 km in the direction of Earth. The average temperature on the surface of the Moon during the day is 107 °C. During the night, the average temperature drops to -153 °C. Studies of lunar rock have shown that melting and separation must have begun at least 4.5 x 109 years ago, so the → crust of the Moon was beginning to form a very short time after the → solar system itself. Thickness of crust ~ 60 km; of mantle ~ 1000 km. Temperature of core ~ 1500 K. It would have taken only 107 years to slow the Moon's rotation into its present lock with its → orbital period. Because of this → synchronous rotation, the Moon revolves once on its axis each time it orbits the Earth, thus always presenting the same face, the nearside, toward Earth. The Moon may have formed during a collision between the early Earth and a Mars-sized rocky planet about 4.6 billion years ago; → Theia.
2) A large body orbiting a planet.

O.E. mona, from P.Gmc. *mænon- (cf. O.S., O.H.G. mano, O.Fris. mona, O.N. mani, Du. maan, Ger. Mond, Goth. mena "moon"), cognate with Pers. mâh, as below, from PIE *me(n)ses- "moon, month."

Mâh and mâng in Pers. are variants of the same term, the dominant form being mâh, while mâng (Av. from, see below) is used in classical literature as well as in some dialects: Tabari, Kurd. mâng, Laki, Tâti, Taelši mong, Šahmirzâdi, Sangesari mung; Mid.Pers. mâh "moon, month;" O.Pers. māha- "moon, month;" Av. māh- "month, moon," also māwngh-; cf. Skt. mās- "moon, month;" Gk. mene "moon," men "month;" L. mensis "month;" O.C.S. meseci, Lith. menesis "moon, month;" O.Ir. mi, Welsh mis, Bret. miz "month;" O.E. mona; E. moon, month; Ger. Mond, Monat; Du. maan; PIE base *me(n)ses- "moon, month."

Note: In Persian the same term, mâh, is used for two different, but related, concepts: moon and month. This was also the case for other IE languages, as shows the above etymology. However, other IE languages have evolved toward more accuracy by using different forms of the same initial term, as in E. moon / month or Ger. Mond / Monat. The Latin family uses two unrelated words, as in Fr. lune "moon" / mois "month" and Sp. luna / mes. An additional difficulty in present Pers. is that the adj. mâhi not only means "lunar" and "monthly" it also denotes "fish." For the sake of clarity and precision, this dictionary uses mângi for "lunar."

Moon halo
  هاله‌ی ِ ماه   
hâle-ye mâh (#)

Fr.: halo de la lune   

Same as → lunar halo.

Moon; → halo.

Moon's age
  ۱) کهن‌روزی ِ ماه؛ ۲) سن ِ ماه   
1) kohan-ruzi-ye mâh; 2) senn-e mâh

Fr.: âge de la lune   

1) The number of days that have elapsed since the last → conjunction of the Sun and Moon. It is 7 days at → first quarter, 15 days at → full moon, and 22 days at → third quarter.
2) The time past since the → formation of the Moon.

Moon; → age.

1) Kohan-ruzi literally "age in days," from kohan-ruz "old in days," from kohan "old, ancient," kohné "worn;" Mid.Pers. kahwan "old, aged, worn;" pir; Mid.Pers. pir "old, aged, ancient;" Av. parô (adv.) "before, before (of time)," in front (of space); cf. Skt. puáh, combining form of puras "before (of time and place), in front, in advance;" mâh, → Moon.
2) Senn, → age.

Moon's apsidal precession
  پیشایان ِ هباکی ِ مانگ   
pišâyân-e habâki-ye mâng

Fr.: précession absidiale de la Lune   

The → rotation of the Moon's → orbit within the → orbital plane, whereby the axes of the ellipse change direction. The Moon's → major axis makes one complete revolution every 8.85 Earth years, or 3,232.6054 days, as it rotates slowly in the same direction as the Moon itself (direct, or → prograde motion). The Moon's apsidal precession is a → relativistic effect, and should not be confused with its → axial procession.

Moon; → apsidal; → precession.

Moon's prime meridian
  نیمروزان ِ نخستی ِ مانگ   
nimruzân-e naxosti-ye Mâng

Fr.: méridien origine de la lune   

The line connecting the Moon's north pole with its south pole, and passing through the center of the lunar disk. The longitude of the Moon's prime meridian is zero degrees.

Moon; → prime meridian.

moonbow
  ماه‌کمان   
mâhkamân

Fr.: arc en ciel lunaire   

A rainbow that arises from the refraction and reflection of moonlight on rain drops or mist.

moon; → bow.

moonlet
  مانگچه   
mângcé

Fr.: satellite mineur, lune mineure   

A very small natural or artificial satellite orbiting a planet. Saturn has dozens of moonlets often associated with its → planetary rings.

moon; → -let.

moonlet wake
  کل ِ مانگچه   
kel-e mângcé

Fr.: sillage de lune mineure   

Local disturbances in the ring structure caused by the gravitational influence of embedded satellites. If the satellite (moonlet) is large enough to clear a gap in the rings, the moonlet wakes become edge waves that precede the satellite on the inner edge and trail the satellite on the outer edge. For smaller satellites, the "gap-less" wakes have been nicknamed propellors (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

moonlet; → wake.

moonlight
  مهتاب   
mahtâb (#)

Fr.: clair de lune   

The light of the Moon.

From → moon + → light.

Mahtâb (Gilaki mângtâb) from mah, mâh (mâng), → moon, + tâb "light," from tâbidan, tâftan "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot" (Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth;" cf. Skt. tap- "to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer; to heat, be/become hot," tapati "burns;" L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm;" PIE base *tep- "warm").

moonquake
  مانگ-لرزه   
mâng-larze

Fr.: tremblement de lune   

A → seismic event occurring on the → Moon; the lunar equivalent of an → earthquake. Moonquakes were first detected by the → seismometers placed on the Moon by Apollo astronauts from 1969 through 1972. The instruments placed by the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 missions were functional until 1977. Unlike earthquakes, moonquakes are not believed to be caused by → tectonic plate movement, but by → tidal forces between Earth and the Moon. There are at least four different kinds of moonquakes: (1) deep moonquakes about 700 km below the surface. They occur at monthly intervals at about 100 distinct sites, indicating that these moonquakes are caused by → stresses from changes in lunar tides as the Moon orbits the Earth; (2) vibrations from the impact of → meteorites; (3) thermal quakes caused by the expansion of the frigid crust when first illuminated by the morning sun after two weeks of deep-freeze lunar night; and (4) shallow moonquakes only 20 or 30 km below the surface (science.nasa.gov/science-news).

moon; → quake.

moonrise
  بر‌آمد ِ ماه   
barâmad-e mâh (#)

Fr.: lever de la lune   

The times at which the apparent upper limb of the ascending Moon is on the astronomical horizon.

moon; → rise.

moonset
  فروشد ِ مانگ   
forušod-e mâng (#)

Fr.: coucher de la lune   

The crossing of the visible horizon by the upper limb of the descending Moon.

moon; → set.

moonset lag
  لک ِ فروشد ِ مانگ   
lek-e forušod-e mâng

Fr.: retard du coucher de la lune   

The delay between → sunset and → moonset.

moonset; → lag.

Mordor
  موردور   
Mordor

Fr.: Mordor   

A unique feature of → Pluto's large satellite → Charon. It appears as a dark reddish area about 475 km in diameter in Charon's north polar region, as revealed in → New Horizons' approach images. It has been proposed that the feature is due to gas from Pluto. A part of Pluto's → atmosphere (→ methane molecules) is transiently cold-trapped and processed at Charon's winter pole (W. M. Grundy et al., 2016, Nature, 14 September).

Unofficial name.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>