An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
adapter
  نیاوگر، نیاونده   
niyâvgar, niyâvandé

Fr.: adaptateur   

1) General: One that adapts.
An appliance for connecting objects of different sizes or designs in an apparatus.
2) Astro.: A device that allows an observing instrument (imaging camera, spectrograph) to be mounted on a focus (e.g. Cassegrain) of a telescope.

adapt + → -er.

adaption
  نیاوش   
niyâveš

Fr.: adaptation   

Same as → adaptation.

adaptation.

adaptive
  نیاوشی   
niyâveši

Fr.: adaptatif   

1) Relating to or exhibiting adaptation.
2) Capable of adapting or of being adapted. → adaptive optics; → adaptive optics system; → extreme adaptive optics.

adapt; → -ive.

adaptive mesh refinement (AMR)
  نازکش ِ نیاوشی ِ بانچه   
nâzokeš-e niyâveši-ye bâncé

Fr.: raffinement de maillage adaptatif   

A type of → algorithm that dynamically achieves high → resolution in localized regions of multidimensional → numerical simulations. AMR provides a higher → accuracy solution at lower costs, through an automatically → optimal distribution of → grid points for the computation region. It relies on locally refined mesh or mesh patches to increase the resolution of an underlying coarse mesh only where needed. It can alleviate some of the complexities of the generation of high quality grid and reduce the number of → iterations of "trial-and-error" between the grid generation and solution required for tailoring the grid to the specification of a problem. Thus, it can offer orders of magnitude saving in computational and storage costs over an equivalent uniformly refined mesh. AMR was originally developed for → inviscid, → compressible flow (Berger et al., 1984, Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations. J. Comp. Phy., 53, 484). It has been extended to solve → Navier-Stokes equations, time dependent problems and more. Several AMR techniques have been developed and applied to compressible flow fields to capture characteristics at the strong gradient or discontinuous regions requiring higher space resolution, such as regions involving → shock waves, vortices (→ vortex), and → wakes (see, e.g., Qingluan Xue, "Development of Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scheme and Conjugate Heat Transfer Model for Engine Simulations" (2009), Iowa State Univ., Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Paper 10678).
See also → Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics.

adaptive; → mesh; → refinement.

adaptive optics
  نوریک ِ نیاوشی   
nurik-e niyâveši

Fr.: optique adaptative   

A technique for improving the → image quality of a telescope against → atmospheric turbulence in which image distortions are compensated by high-speed changes in the shape of a small, thin mirror. → wavefront; → wavefront distortion; → wavefront correction; → Strehl ratio; → tip-tilt mirror, → Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, → active optics.

adaptive; → optics.

ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS)
     

Fr.: ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS)   

An → adaptive optics instrument used on the → European Southern Observatory (ESO) 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. It was an upgraded version of COME-ON-PLUS, the → Very Large Telescope (VLT) adaptive optics prototype. It had 52 → actuators and performed corrections of the mirror 200 times per second. The reference → wavefront was sensed in the → visible. The observation was done in the → near-infrared (1-5 μm).

adaptive; → optics; → near-infrared; → system.

adaptive optics system
  راژمان ِ نوریک ِ نیاوشی   
râžmân-e nurik-e niyâveši

Fr.: système d'optique adaptative   

An → optical system that uses → adaptive optics.

adaptive; → optics; → system.

add
  برداییدن، افزودن   
bardâyidan, afzudan

Fr.: ajouter   

1) To unite or so as to bring about an increase.
2) To increase a number by another number using addition, which leads to a → sum.

M.E. adden, from L. addere "add to, join," from → ad- "to" + -dere combining form meaning "to put, place," from dare "to give, grant," from PIE base *do- "to give" (cf. Av. and O.Pers. dâ- "to give, grant, yield," Av. dadâiti "he gives," Skt. dadâti "he gives," Gk. didomi "I give," L. do "I give").

Bardâyidan, from bar- "on; up; upon; in, into; at; forth," → on-, + O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, put," dadāiti "he gives;" Mid.Pers./Mod.Pers. dâdan "to give, put" (cf. Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do") + -y-, epenthetic vowel, + infinitive suffix -idan.
Afzudan, → increase.

addend
  بردایه   
bardâyé

Fr.: quantité ajoutée   

A number or quantity to be added to another. In the expression 5 + 3, both 5 and 3 are addends.

From L. addendus "that which is to be added," → add.

Bardâyé, from present stem bardây-, → add, + noun forming suffix .

addition
  بردایش   
bardâyeš

Fr.: addition   

The operation of combining two or more quantities to obtain a third quantity called their → sum. The result of adding.

Verbal noun of → add.

addition sign
  نشان ِ بردایش   
nešân-e bardâyeš

Fr.: signe d'addition   

The → plus sign +. It is believed to be a shortened form of the letters e and t in the L. word et, which, in early German manuscripts was the term for addition. The signs + and - were first used by Johann Wiedmann in 1489.

addition; → sign.

additive
  ۱) بردایشی؛ ۲) بردایه   
1) bardâyeši; 2) bardâyé

Fr.: additif   

1) Involving → addition.
2) Something added to a substance to alter or improve it.

From L. additivus "added, annexed," from p.p. stem of addere, → add; → -ive.

1) Related to bardâyeš, → addition; 2) from bardây- prsent stem of bardâyidan, → add, + nuance suffix.

additive color
  رنگ ِ بردایشی   
rang-e bardâyeši

Fr.: synthèse additive   

Color created by mixing light rays of different colors. Combining all the color rays of light results in white light. See also → subtractive color.

additive; → color.

additive identity
  ایدانی ِ بردایشی   
idâni-ye bardâyeši

Fr.: identité additive   

The number which can be added to any other number without changing the magnitude of that number: zero. → multiplicative identity.

additive; → identity.

additive law of probability
  قانون ِ بردایشی ِ شوانایی   
qânun-e bardâyeši-ye šavânâyi

Fr.: loi additive de probabilité   

If E1, E2, ..., En are n → mutually exclusive events, then the probability of occurrence of at least one of them is the sum of their individual probabilities: P(E1 + E2 + ... + En) = P(E1) + P(E2) + ... + P(En).

additive; → law; → probability.

Adhara (ε Canis Majoris)
  عذارا   
Azârâ (#)

Fr.: Adhara   

A binary star, in the constellation → Canis Major, 470 → light-years distant from Earth. The main star possesses an apparent magnitude of +1.5 and belongs to the spectral classification B2 II. The +7.5 magnitude companion star is 7''.5 apart from the main star.

Adhara, from Ar. adhârâ "virgins," plural of adhrâ' "virgin".

Azârâ, from Ar. Adhara.

adhere
  آدوسیدن   
âdusidan

Fr.: adhérer   

1) To stay attached; stick fast; cling.
2) Physics: (of two or more dissimilar substances) to be united by a molecular force acting in the area of contact (→ adhesion).

From M.Fr. adhérer or directly from L. adhaerere "to stick to," from → ad- + haerere "to stick."

Âdusidan, from intensive/nuance prefix â- + dusidan (Dehxodâ) "to stick, to adhere," maybe related to Proto-Ir. *dauc- "to sew;" Pers. duxtan, duz- "to sew."

adherence
  آدوسی   
âdusi

Fr.: adhérence   

1) The act or state of adhering; adhesion.
2) The quality of adhering; steady devotion, support, or attachment (Dictionary.com).

adhere + -ence, → -ance.

adherent
  آدوسنده   
âdusandé

Fr.: adhérent   

1) A person who follows or upholds a leader, cause, etc.; supporter; follower.
2) Sticking; clinging; adhering (Dictionary.com).

From O.Fr. adherent or directly from L. adhaerentem pr.p. of adhaerere "to stick to," → adhere.

Âdusandé, from âdusidan, → adhere.

adhesion
  آدوسش   
âduseš

Fr.: adhésion   

1) The act or state of adhering; state of being adhered or united.
2) Steady or devoted attachment, support, etc.; adherence.
3) Physics: The molecular force of attraction in the area of contact between unlike bodies that acts to hold them together (Dictionary.com). See also → cohesion.

Verbal noun from → adhere; → -tion.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>