An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
silk
  ابریشم   
abrišam (#)

Fr.: soie   

The soft, lustrous fiber obtained as a filament from the cocoon of the silkworm (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.E. seolc, sioluc, from L. sericum "silk garment, silk," from neuter of sericus "silken," from Gk. serikos, from Seres, an eastern Asian people, probably the Chinese (cf. Chinese si "silk", Manchurian sirghe, Mongolian sirkek).

Abrišam "silk," from Mid.Pers. abrešom "silk," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *au-uris-, from *uris- "to turn, spin;" cf. rešté "thread, line, file," reštan, ristan, "to spin;" Mid.Pers. 'rws- "to turn to;" Av. uruuaēs- "to twist, turn."

Silk damping
  میرایی ِ سیلک   
mirâyi-ye Silk

Fr.: amortissement de Silk   

The smoothing of primordial → density fluctuations at high frequencies caused by photon → diffusion. Before the → decoupling era, photons and → baryons were tightly coupled to each other by → Compton scattering. However, the transition to a transparent → Universe was not instantaneous. As the → opacity of the Universe dropped, the photons started diffusing away from the positions they had while opaque, hence undergoing a → random walk. Since the → acoustic waves in the decoupling era were driven by photon pressure, the photon diffusion also led to damping of the → baryon acoustic oscillations. Silk damping suppresses all perturbations with masses smaller than about 1013 Msun. The implication for a theory of → structure formation is that individual galaxies must have formed in a → top-down structure formation mechanism, i.e. by the fragmentation of larger objects. However, in theories of structure formation which include → non-baryonic dark matter galaxies can form from smaller objects in a → bottom-up scenario.

Joseph Silk (1942-); → damping.

silver
  نقره   
noqré (#)

Fr.: argent   

A metallic → chemical element; symbol Ag (L. argentum). → Atomic number 47; → atomic weight 107.8682; → melting point 961.93°C; → boiling point 2,212°C; → specific gravity 10.5 at 20°C. Pure silver is nearly white, lustrous, soft, very ductile, malleable, and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity.
Silver is generated in stars through a special rapid process of → neutron captures. This process defers from the main → r-process, the main and weak → s-process, and charged particle freeze-outs. In other words, during a → supernova explosion, silver is formed in a different → fusion process from the one that forms → gold (Hansen et al., 2012, A&A 545, A31).

M.E. silver(e), selver(e), selfer; O.E. seolfor "silver;" cf. O.S. silvbar, O.N. silfr, M.Du. silver, Du. zilver, O.H.G. sillabar, Ger. silber, Goth. silubr, akin to Serbo-Croatian srebro, Rus. serebo, Lith. sidabras "silver."
L. argentum "silver, white money," from PIE *arg-ent-, from PIE *arg- "to be bright, shine;" cf. Av. ərəzata- "silver," auruša- "white" (Mid.Pers. arus "white, bright"); O.Pers. ardata- "silver;" Mod.Pers. arziz "silvery metal tin;" Skt. arjuna- "white, shining," rajata- "silver;" Gk. argos "white," arguron "silver;" Arm. arcat; Hittite harki- "white."

Noqré from Sogdian nâkartak "uncoined (silver)," literally "undone," from nâ- negation prefix "not, no" (Mid.Pers. ne, O.Pers. naiy, Av. na-, (particle of negation noit), Skt. na-, (ned), Gk. né- "not," L. ne-, in-, un-, PIE *ne-) + kartak "done," p.p. of kardan "to do, to make;" kâr "work," variant kar (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make"), Sogdian nâktênê "of silver." Note that another word in Pers. for silver is sim, which has a semantic form comparable to that of noqré, since it derives from Mid.Pers. asêm, from Gk. asemon "without mark, uncoined, shapeless, formless," from argurion asemon "uncoined money."

SIMBAD
     
SIMBAD

Fr.: SIMBAD   

A large on-line astronomical database, developed at the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg, → CDS in France. It provides a large collection of astronomical data, including cross-identifications, bibliography, and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system.

SIMBAD, short for Set of Identifications, Measurements, and Bibliography for Astronomical Data.

similar
  همانند   
hamânand (#)

Fr.: similaire   

1) Geometry: Having the same shape; representing the same figure drawn to different scales (same corresponding angles and proportional sides).
2) Math.: Related by means of a → similarity transformation.

From Fr. similaire, from L. similis "like," → simulate.

Hamânand, contraction of hammânand, from ham-, → com-, + mânand "resembling, like," → simulate.

similar matrices
  ماتریس‌های ِ همانند   
mâtrishâ-ye hamânand (#)

Fr.: matrices similaires   

Two → square matrices A and B that are related by B = X-1AX, where X is a square → nonsingular matrix.

similar; → matrix.

similar polygons
  چندبرهای ِ همانند   
candbarhâ-ye hamânand

Fr.: polygone similaires   

Polygons that are exactly the same shape, but can be different sizes.

similar; → polygon.

similarity
  همانندی   
hamânandi (#)

Fr.: similarité   

The state of being similar; likeness; resemblance.

similar; → -ity.

similarity transformation
  ترادیسش ِ همانندی   
tarâdiseš-e hamânandi

Fr.: transformation de similarité   

1) A transformation that preserves angles and changes all distances in the same ratio.
2) A transformation of the form B = X-1AX relating two → square matrices A and B.

similarity; → transformation.

simple
  ساده   
sâdé (#)

Fr.: simple   

1) Chem.: Composed of only one → substance or → element.
2) Math.: Consisting of, involving, or describable by → terms of the → first degree.
3) Music: Uncompounded or without overtones.

M.E., from O.Fr. simple, from L. simplus "simple, single," variant of simplex, from PIE root *sem- "one, together;" cf. Pers. ham "together," → com-, Skt. sam "together;" + *plac- "-fold," from PIE *plek- "to plait," → multiply.

Sâdé "simple, unmixed, smooth, erased, plain;" cf. Khotanese sāta- "smooth;" Baluchi sāt/sāy-, sāh- "to shave;" Av. si-, sā- "to sharpen, cut;" Skt. śā- "to sharpen, whet" (Cheung 2007); see also → precise.

simple event
  رویداد ِ ساده   
ruydâd-e sâdé

Fr.: événement simple   

Statistics: An event consisting of a single point of the → sample space.

simple; → event.

simple fraction
  برخه‌ی ِ ساده   
barxe-ye sâdé

Fr.: fraction simple   

A fraction in which the → numerator and → denominator are positive → integer numbers. Compare → compound fraction.

simple; → fraction.

simple harmonic motion
  جنبش ِ هماهنگ ِ ساده   
jonbeš-e hamâhang-e sâdé

Fr.: mouvement harmonique   

The motion of a body subjected to a restraining force which is directly proportional to the displacement from a fixed point in the line of motion. The equation of simple harmonic motion is given by x = A sin(ωt + θ0), where x is the body's displacement from equilibrium position, A is the → amplitude, or the magnitude of harmonic oscillations, ω is the → angular frequency, t is the time elapsed, and θ0 is the → initial phase angle.

simple; → harmonic; → motion.

simple harmonic oscillator
  نوشگر ِ هماهنگ ِ ساده   
navešgar-e hamâhang-e sâdé

Fr.: oscillateur harmonique simple   

An oscillator whose force is proportional to its extension, according to → Hooke's law. The way the oscillator moves is called → simple harmonic motion.

simple; → harmonic; → oscillator.

simple population
  پرینش ِ ساده   
porineš-e sâdé

Fr.: population simple   

A set of stars resulting from a spatially (≤ few pc) and temporally (≤ Myr) correlated star formation event.

simple; → population.

simple root
  ریشه‌ی ِ ساده   
riše-ye sâdé

Fr.: racine simple   

A → rootx0 of function f(x), if f(x0) = 0 and df/dx | x0 = 0. See also → double root.

simple; → root.

simplex
  تکتافت   
taktâft

Fr.: simplexe   

A generalization of the simplest closed configuration that can be made from straight line segments. For example, a → triangle is a 2-simplex because it is in two → dimensions, and → tetrahedron is a 3-simplex because it is in three dimensions (Steven Schwartzman, An Etymological Dictionary of Mathematical Terms Used in English, 1994).

Simplex, literally "uncomplicated, → simple," from sim-, from PIE root *sem- "one, once, together" + plek- "to fold." "folded [only] once."

Taktâft, literally "folded once," from tak "→ single, alone," + tâft, contraction of tâfté "plated, twisted, fold," as in hamtâft, → complex.

simplex method
  روش ِ تکتافتی   
raveš-e taktâfti

Fr.: méthode du simplexe   

An → algorithm for solving the classical → linear programming problem; developed by George B. Dantzig in 1947. The simplex method is an → iterative method, solving a system of → linear equations in each of its steps, and stopping when either the → optimum is reached, or the solution proves infeasible. The basic method remained pretty much the same over the years, though there were many refinements targeted at improving performance (e.g. using sparse matrix techniques), numerical accuracy and stability, as well as solving special classes of problems, such as mixed-integer programming (Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing, FOLDOC).

simplex; → method.

simplification
  ساده‌کرد، ساده‌شد   
sâde-kard, sâde-šod

Fr.: simplification   

The act of simplifying, or the fact of being simplified.

Verbal noun of → simplify.

simplify
  ساده کردن   
sâdé kardan (#)

Fr.: simplifier   

1) To make less complex or complicated.
2) Math.: Reduce an → expression by → algebraic manipulations.

simple + epenthesis -i- + → -fy.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>