An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
quantum fluctuation
  افتاخیز ِ کو‌آنتومی   
oftâxiz-e kuântomi

Fr.: fluctuation quantique   

The temporary variation in a → quantum field due to the → uncertainty principle.

quantum; → fluctuation.

quantum gravity
  گرانی ِ کو‌آنتومی   
gerâni-ye kuântomi

Fr.: gravité quantique   

A theory of gravity, yet to be developed, that would properly include quantum mechanics. Because of the tensor nature of general relativity, it is not renormalizable as a field theory in perturbation from flat space. So far various attempts to quantize general relativity have been unsuccessful.

quantum; → gravity.

quantum information
  ازدایش ِ کو‌آنتومی   
azdâyeš-e kuântomi

Fr.: information quantique   

The science concerned with the transmission, storage, and processing of information using quantum mechanical systems. It exploits the notion of → quantum entanglement between systems and joins several fields of knowledge, mainly quantum physics, information, computation, and probability.

quantum; → information.

quantum jump
  جهش ِ کو‌آنتومی   
jaheš-e kuântomi

Fr.: saut quantique   

The transition of a quantum system from one stationary state to another, accompanied by absorption or emission of energy.

quantum; → jump.

quantum mechanical system
  راژمان ِ کو‌آنتوم مکانیکی   
râžmân-e kuântom mekâniki

Fr.: système mécanique quantique   

A → physical system that is specified by a → wave function.

quantum; → mechanical; → system.

quantum mechanics
  کو‌آنتوم مکانیک، مکانیک ِ کو‌آنتومی   
kuântom mekânik, mekânik-e kuântomi

Fr.: mécanique quantique   

A development of Newtonian mechanics based on the discrete character of energy (Planck 1900) and the wave motion of material particles (de Broglie 1924). It is relies on the consideration that energy state of a quantum mechanical system can be derived at a given instant by a function whose square of the modulus gives the probability distribution of the coordinates of the system. Quantum mechanics is essential for the treatment of all atomic processes. It holds also for ordinary large scale processes although in this case the deviations from Newtonian mechanics are negligible.

quantum; → mechanics.

quantum noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ کو‌آنتومی   
nufe-ye kuântomi

Fr.: bruit quantique   

A random variation of signal due to fluctuations in the average rate of incidence of quanta on a detector. Quantum noise is described by the → Poisson distribution. Same as → photon noise and → shot effect.

quantum; → noise.

quantum number
  عدد ِ کو‌آنتومی   
adad-e kuântomi (#)

Fr.: nombre quantique   

A number used in quantum mechanics, specifying the state of an electron bound in an atomic system. The quantum numbers are integers or half integers and specify the number of units of energy, momentum, spin, etc. possessed by an electron.

quantum; → number.

quantum of action
  کو‌آنتوم ِ ژیرش   
kuântom-e žireš

Fr.: quantum d'action   

Since → Planck's constant has the dimension of → energy × → time, its sometimes called the quantum of → action.

quantum; → action.

quantum phase transition (QPT)
  گذرش ِ فاز ِ کو‌آنتومی   
gozareš-e fâz-e kuântomi

Fr.: transition de phase quantique   

A phase transitions that occurs at zero temperature as a function of a non-thermal parameter like → pressure, → magnetic field, or → chemical composition. In contrast to ordinary → phase transitions, which are associated with passage through a critical temperature, quantum phase transitions are associated with → quantum fluctuations, a consequence of → Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. For example, see → Bose-Einstein condensation.

quantum; → phase; → transition.

quantum state
  استات ِ کو‌آنتومی   
estât-e kuântomi

Fr.: état quantique   

In → quantum mechanics, the state of a system as described by a set of → quantum numbers and represented by an → eigenfunction.

quantum; → state.

quantum theory
  نگره‌ی ِ کو‌آنتومی   
negare-ye kuântomi (#)

Fr.: théorie quantique   

The theoretical basis of modern physics which describes the behavior and interactions of elementary particles or energy states based on the assumptions that energy is subdivided into discrete amounts and that matter possesses wave properties. → quantum mechanics; → quantum field theory.

quantum; → theory.

quantum unitarity
  یکاییگی ِ کو‌آنتومی   
yekâyigi-ye kuântomi

Fr.: unitarité quantique   

A property in → quantum mechanics whereby in a quantum system the sum of all probabilities of all possible outcomes must be 1. Quantum unitarity makes the modulous of a → quantum state invariant with time.

quantum. → unitary.

quantum walk
  پویش ِ کو‌آنتومی   
puyeš-e kuântomi

Fr.: marche quantique   

A generalization of the classical concept of → random walk using quantum mechanical laws such as the → superposition principle and → interference of quantum amplitudes. In the classical version the particle moves in the position space with a certain probability. In contrast, in the quantum counterpart the particle moves by exploring multiple possible paths simultaneously with the amplitudes corresponding to the influence of different paths. The concept of quantum walk is studied in two standard forms: → continuous-time quantum walk and → discrete-time quantum walk. Quantum walk was first introduced by Aharonov et al. (1993, Phys. Rev. A, 48, 1687).

continuous; → walk.

quantum yield
  بازده ِ کو‌آنتومی   
bâzdeh-e kuântomi

Fr.: rendement quantique   

In photochemistry, the number of defined events which occur per photon absorbed by the system.

quantum; → theory.

quantum-mechanical operator
  آپارگر ِ مکانیک ِ کو‌آنتومی   
âpârgar-e mekânik-e kuântomi

Fr.: opérateur en mécanique quantique   

A linear → Hermitian operator associated with a physical quantity.

quantum; → mechanics; → operator.

Quaoar
  کو‌آیءور   
Quaoar

Fr.: Quaoar   

A faint object (magnitude 18.5), probably a dwarf planet, orbiting the Sun beyond Neptune in the Kuiper belt. Discovered in 2002, Quaoar is estimated to have a diameter of 1260 km and an orbital period of 287 years.

Quaoar the name of a creation deity of the Native American Tongva, located in the Los Angeles area, where the discovery was made.

quark
  کو‌آرک   
kuârk (#)

Fr.: quark   

Any of the hypothetical particles with spin 1/2, baryon number 1/3, and electric charge 1/3 or -2/3 that, together with their antiparticles, are believed to constitute all the elementary particles classed as baryons and mesons. Quarks are distinguished by their flavors, designated as up (u), down (d), strange (s), charm (c), bottom or beauty (b), and top or truth (t), and their colors, red, green, and blue. The key evidence for the existence of quarks came from a series of inelastic electron-nucleon scattering experiments (→ inelastic scattering) conducted between 1967 and 1973 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Other theoretical and experimental advances have confirmed this discovery, leading to the → standard model of particle physics.

Quark, coined in 1963 by the American physicist Murray Gell-Mann (1929-), who took it from a nonsense word in James Joyce's novel Finnegans Wake (1939): Three quarks for Muster Mark! // Sure he has not got much of a bark // And sure any he has it's all beside the mark.

quark confinement
  پربست ِ کو‌آرک‌ها   
parbast-e kuârkhâ

Fr.: confinement des quarks   

The phenomenon wherein the → quarks are permanently bound together and can never be removed from the → hadrons they compose.

quark; → confinement.

quark star
  ستاره‌ی ِ کو‌آرکی   
setâre-ye kuârki

Fr.: étoile de quarks   

A hypothetical star so dense that it is composed of degenerate quarks, a matter denser than that of a neutron star.

quark; → star.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>