An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
thermocline
  دماشیب   
damâšib (#)

Fr.: thermocline   

A layer in a large body of water, such as a lake, in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below.

thermo- + → -cline.

thermocouple
  دماجفت   
damâjoft (#)

Fr.: thermocouple   

Electrical circuit consisting of two dissimilar metals, in which an electromotive force is produced when the two junctions are at different temperatures.

thermo- + → couple.

thermodynamic
  گرماتوانیک   
garmâtavânik

Fr.: thermodynamique   

Of or pertaining to → thermodynamics.

thermo-; → dynamic.

thermodynamic equilibrium
  ترازمندی ِ گرماتوانیک   
tarâzmandi-ye garmâtavânik

Fr.: équilibre thermodynamique   

The condition of a → thermodynamic system in which the available → energy is distributed uniformly among all the possible forms of energy. Furthermore, all → thermodynamic process es must be exactly balanced by their reverse processes. For example, inside a star there will be as many → ionizations of helium per second as there are → recombinations of free electrons and helium ions. Se also → local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE).

thermodynamic; → equilibrium.

thermodynamic path
  په ِ گرماتوانیک   
pah-e garmâtavânik

Fr.: chemin thermodynamique   

The loci of various changes between two → states through which a → thermodynamic system passes during a → thermodynamic process.

thermodynamic; → path.

thermodynamic potential
  توند ِ گرماتوانیک   
tavand-e garmâtavânik

Fr.: potentiel thermodynaique   

A measure of the energy level of a → thermodynamic system. It represents the amount of → work obtainable when the system undergoes a → change. The main types of thermodynamic potential are: → internal energy, → enthalpy, the → Helmholtz free energy, and the → Gibbs free energy.

thermodynamic; → potential.

thermodynamic process
  فراروند ِ گرماتوانیک   
farâravand-e garmâtavânik

Fr.: processus thermodynamique   

An ordered set of → equilibrium states undergone by a → thermodynamic system. Thermodynamics processes have various types: → cyclic process, → reversible process, and → irreversible process, → isothermal process, → adiabatic process, → isentropic process.

thermodynamic; → process.

thermodynamic system
  راژمان ِ گرماتوانیک   
râžmân-e garmâtavânik

Fr.: système thermodynamique   

A quantity of substance or a working machine which in a well-defined way is set apart from its → environment. The boundary between the system and its surroundings can be real or an imaginary mathematical envelope. A thermodynamic system is not necessarily bound to a predefined geometry. Thermodynamic systems can be divided into three types: → open systems, → closed systems, and → isomated systems.

thermodynamic; → system.

thermodynamic temperature
  دمای ِ گرماتوانیک   
damâ-ye garmâtavânik

Fr.: température thermodynamique   

A temperature scale, measured in → kelvin (K), that is related to the energy possessed by matter; it was formerly known as → absolute temperature. The zero point on the scale (0 K) is absolute zero. Thermodynamic temperature can be converted to temperature on the → Celsius scale by subtracting 273.15.

thermodynamic; → temperature.

thermodynamics
  گرماتوانیک   
garmâtavânik

Fr.: thermodynamique   

A branch of physics concerned with the relations between heat and other forms of energy and how these affect temperature, pressure, volume, mechanical action, and work.

thermo-; → dynamics, coined by the Scottish physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin, 1824-1907), in 1849.

thermoelectric
  دمابرقی   
damâbarqi (#)

Fr.: thermo-électrique   

Of, relating to, or produced by electric phenomena occurring in conjunction with a flow of heat.

thermo- + → electric.

thermoelectric effect
  اسکر ِ دمابرقی   
oskar-e damâbarqi

Fr.: effet thermo-électrique   

A phenomenon occurring when temperature differences exist in an electrical circuit, such as the → Peltier effect, the → Seebeck effect, and the → Thomson effect,

thermoelectric; → effect.

thermoelectricity
  دمابرق   
damâbarq (#)

Fr.: thermo-éléctricité   

The electricity produced by heat or temperature difference in a conductor.

thermo- + → electricity.

thermohaline convection
  همبز ِ گرماشور   
hambaz-e garmâšur

Fr.: convection thermohaline   

An instability in the ocean water that occurs when a layer of warm salt water is above a layer of fresh cold water of slightly higher density. In this process the hot salt water cools off and then, after having reached a higher density than the fresh water, sinks down even in the presence of stabilizing temperature gradients. This phenomenon explains the large-scale water movements in the oceans called themohaline circulation. First discussed by Melvin E. Stern (1960, Tellus 12, 172). → thermohaline mixing.

Thermohaline, from → thermo- + haline, from Gk. hals (genitive halos) "salt, sea;" cf. L. sal; O.Ir. salann; Welsh halen; O.C.S. sali "salt;" O.E. sealt; cf. O.N., O.Fris., Goth. salt, Du. zout, Ger. Salz from PIE *sal- "salt."

Garmâšur, from garmâ-thermo- + šur "salty" (Mid.Pers. šôr "salty," šorag "salt land;" cf. Skt. ksurá- "razor, sharp knife;" Gk. ksuron "razor;" PIE base *kseu- "to rub, whet").

thermohaline mixing
  آمیزش ِ گرماشور   
âmizeš-e garmâšur

Fr.: mélange thermohaline   

In stars, an instability phenomenon, reminiscent of the → thermohaline convection in the oceans, that takes place when layers of higher molecular weight occur above a region of lower molecular weight. A situation of heavier material being above lighter gas in a star can occur during the → helium flash when → helium burning does not start in the center but in the shell. Similarly, in → close binary systems it may happen that helium-rich material is transferred to a → main sequence star. Then a helium-rich outer layer is formed and the instability occurs at the interface between that layer and the original stellar material. This process can explain several surface abundance variations in stars. First discussed by S. Kato (1966, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 18, 374).

thermohaline; → mixing.

thermonuclear flash
  درخش ِ گرماهسته‌ای   
deraxš-e garmâhaste-y

Fr.: flash thermonucléaire   

A theoretical interpretation for the → X-ray bursts observed toward → low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) stars. According to models, X-ray bursts are produced on the surface of → neutron stars as a result of violent thermonuclear processes in a → hydrogen or → helium rich → layer. It is the → nuclear energy released in the → fusion of hydrogen and helium to heavier elements (e.g., Ni, Zn, and Se) in the → accreted matter which heats the upper layers of the neutron star so that X-rays are emitted from the surface (see, e.g., Taam, R.E., 1984, AIP Conf. Proc. 115, 263).

thermonuclear; → flash.

thermonuclear reaction
  واژیرش ِ گرماهسته‌ای   
vâžireš-e garmâhaste-yi (#)

Fr.: réaction thermonucléaire   

A nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei fuse into a single heavier nucleus by a collision of the interacting particles at extremely high temperatures. Chains of thermonuclear reactions, such as the → proton-proton chain and the → CNO cycle, account for the energy radiated from the Sun and more massive stars.

thermo- + → nuclear; → reaction.

thermonuclear runaway
  واژیرش ِ گرماهسته‌ای ِ لگام گسیخته   
vâžireš-e garmâhaste-yi-e legâm gosixté

Fr.: emballement thermonucléaire   

1) The uncontrolled → fusion of hydrogen into helium.
2) A → thermonuclear reaction process occurring at electron → degenerate conditions in stellar material, such as in → Type Ia supernovae.

thermonuclear; → runaway.

Vâžireš, → reaction; garmâhaste-yi, → thermonuclear; legâm gosixté literally "rampant, unrestrained," from legâm "bridle, rein" + gosixté "broken off, torn away," p.p. of gosixtan "to tear away, to break off."

thermonuclear supernova
  ابر-نو-اختر ِ گرماتوانیک   
abar-now-axtar-e garmâtavânik

Fr.: supernova thermonucléaire   

Same as → type Ia supernova

thermonuclear; → supernova.

thermosphere
  گرماسپهر   
garmâsepehr

Fr.: thermosphère   

The region of the upper atmosphere in which temperature increases continuously with height, starting at roughly 100 km. The thermosphere includes the exosphere and most of the ionosphere.

thermo-; → sphere.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>