An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
knowledge
  ۱،۲) شناخت؛ ۲) دانستگان   
1, 2) šenâxt (#); 2) dânestgân

Fr.: connaissance   

1) Acquaintance with facts, truths, or principles, as from study or investigation.
2) All the information, facts, truths, and principles learned throughout time.

M.E. cnawlece, from O.E. cnawan, cf. O.H.G. bi-chnaan, ir-chnaan "to know;" cognate with Pers. šenâxt, as below.

1) Šenâxt, past stem of šenâxtan, šenâsidan "to know, discern, distinguish, be acquainted with;" Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize," dânestan "to know;" O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" cf. Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge;" L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); O.E. cnawan; E. know; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know."
2) Dânestgân, literally "body of (what is) known," from dânest, short for dâneste "known," p.p. of dânestan variant of šenâxtan, as above, + -gân suffix forming plural entities.

Knudsen layer
  لایه‌ی ِ کنودسن   
lâye-ye Knudsen

Fr.: couche de Knudsen   

The thin layer of → vapor immediately adjacent to an irradiated surface. The thickness of the Knudsen layer is generally recognized to be in the order of a few → mean free paths from the surface.

Named after Danish physicist Martin Knudsen (1871-1949); → layer.

Kochab (β Ursae Minoris)
  کوکب   
Kowkab (#)

Fr.: Kochab   

The second brightest star in the constellation → Ursa Minor. It is a reddish, evolved → giant of → spectral type K4 with a visual magnitude of 2.1. It is almost 500 times more luminous than the Sun and lies at a distance of 126 light years. Also called Kocab, Kochah.

Kochab, from Ar. al-Kaukab (الکوکب) "star," shortened from al-Kaukab al-shemali (الکوکب الشمالی) "North Star."

Kolmogorov constant
  پایای ِ کولموگوروف   
pâyâ-ye Kolmogorov (#)

Fr.: constante de Kolmogorov   

The proportionality constant C in Kolmogorov's mathematical analysis of → turbulence which states that the spectral energy E(k) in the range of turbulent scales is E(k) =C ε2/3 k-5/3, where k represents the → wave number (inversely proportional to the wavelength or → eddy size), and ε is the average energy dissipation per unit mass in the fluid. Experimental measurements give C close to 1.5.

Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (1903-1987), a prominent Soviet mathematician, who made major advances in different scientific fields, mainly probability theory, topology, turbulence, classical mechanics, and computational complexity; → constant.

Kolmogorov scale
  مرپل ِ کولموگوروف   
marpel-e Kolmogorov

Fr.: échelle de Kolmogorov   

Length scale of → turbulent flow below which the effects of molecular → viscosity are non-negligible.

Kolmogorov constant; → scale.

Kolmogorov spectrum
  بیناب ِ کولموگوروف   
binâb-e Kolmogorove

Fr.: spectre de Kolmogorov   

The distribution of energy over different scales in a → turbulent flow where → energy cascade occurs. Let E be the energy per unit → wave number (k) and ε the energy → dissipation parameter, E = E(k,ε). → Dimensional analysis yields: E = Cε2/3k-5/3, where C is the → Kolmogorov constant.

A. N. Kolmogorov, 1941, Local structure of turbulence in an incompressible fluid for very large Reynolds numbers, Doklady Acad Sci. USSR 31, 301; → spectrum.

Korolev crater
  لاوک ِ کورولیف   
lâvak-e Korolev

Fr.: cratère de Korolev   

An ice-filled → impact crater located in the northern lowlands of Mars at 73° north latitude and 165° east longitude, south of the large Olympia Undae dune field that partly surrounds Mars' north polar cap. Korolev crater is 82 km across with its centre hosting a mound of water ice some 1.8 kilometres thick all year round. The reason for the permanently stable water ice in the crater is because its deepest part acts as a natural cold trap. The air above the ice cools and is thus heavier compared to the surrounding air: since air is a poor conductor of heat, the water ice mound is effectively shielded from heating and sublimation.

The crater is named after chief rocket engineer and spacecraft designer Sergei Korolev (1907-1966), dubbed the father of Soviet space technology.

Kozai-Lidov mechanism
  ساز-و-کار ِ کوزایی-لیدوف   
sâzokâr-e Kozai-Lidov

Fr.: mécanisme de Kozai-Lidov   

In the → three-body problem, the → perturbation of the orbit of a → secondary body by the garvity of a third body located at a distance much larger than the separation between the → primary body and the secondary. The secondary's orbit oscillates about a constant value involving a periodic exchange between the extreme values of its → inclination and orbital → eccentricity. The Kozai-Lidov mechanism results from the conservation of the quantity (1 - e2)1/2.cos i for each component, where e is eccentricity and i is inclination. The total → angular momentum of the system remains constant while the angular momentum is exchanged betwwen the components. It has been suggested that the Kozai mechanism is responsible for the high eccentricities observed in the orbits of → extrasolar planets. If the parent star has a massive yet unseen substellar companion, orbiting at a great distance, and in an orbit highly inclined to the plane of the planets' orbits, the mechanism should induce high eccentricities into the orbits of the planets. Similarly, this mechanism may be responsible for the high eccentricities observed in the orbits of many → Kuiper Belt Objects such as 2003 UB313.

Named for the japanese Yoshihide Kozai (1962, Astronomical J. 67, 591), and the Russian Michael Lidov (1962, Planetary & Space Science 9, 719).

Kramers' law
  قانون ِ کرامرز   
qânun-e Kramers (#)

Fr.: loi de Kramers   

An approximate expression for deriving the → opacity that depends upon temperature with a power law: κ ∝ ρT-3.5, where ρ represents the density. In → partial ionization zones, a part of the energy released during a layer's compression can be used for further ionization, rather than raising the temperature of the gas. As the temperature of the compressed layer has not substantially increased, the increase in density produces a corresponding increase in the opacity of the layer. Likewise, during the expansion phase, the temperature does not decrease significantly since the ions release energy when they recombine with electrons.

Derived in 1923 by the Dutch physicist Henrik Kramers (1894-1952); → law.

Kramers' opacity law
  قانون ِ کدری ِ کرامرز   
qânun-e kederi-ye Kramers (#)

Fr.: loi de l'opacité de Kramers   

Same as → Kramers' law.

Named after Henrik Kramers (1894-1952); → law.

Kronecker delta
  دلتای ِ کرونکر   
deltâ-ye Kronecker (#)

Fr.: delta de Kronecker   

The function δik of two variables i and j defined by δik = 1 if i = j, and δik = 0 if i ≠ j.

Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), a German mathematician; delta, Gk. letter of alphabet.

Kruskal diagram
  نمودار ِ کروسکال   
nemudâr-e Kruskal

Fr.: diagramme de Kruskal   

A diagram used to plot trajectories in → space-time near a → black hole. The vertical and horizontal axes are two complicated functions of time and distance from the black hole. Lines of constant time radiate from the origin of the diagram, with steeper slopes corresponding to later times. Lines of constant distance are hyperbolas, lines of constant time pass through the origin; photons always travel along diagonal lines at ±45° to the vertical. The trajectory of an object falling into the black hole is shown as a curving line moving upward on the diagram at less than 45° to the vertical.

Named after the American physicist Martin David Kruskal (1925-2006); → diagram.

krypton
  کریپتون   
kripton (#)

Fr.: krypton   

A colorless, odorless, highly un-reactive gaseous chemical element and a member of the inert gas family. Symbol Kr; atomic number 36; atomic weight 83.80; melting point -156.6°C; boiling point -152.3°C.

Krypton, from Gk. kryptos "concealed, hidden". It was discovered in liquefied atmospheric air by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and the English chemist Morris William Travers in 1898.

Kuiper belt
  کمربند ِ کویپر   
kamarband-e Kuiper (#)

Fr.: ceinture de Kuiper   

A region of the → Solar System extending roughly from the orbit of → Neptune, or 30 → astronomical units (AU), to 50 AU from the Sun that contains many small icy bodies. The Kuiper belt is now considered to be the source of the → short-period comets.

Named after Gerard Peter Kuiper (1905-1973), a Dutch-born American astronomer, who predicted the belt in 1951. He is also considered the father of modern planetary science for his contributions to the study of our solar system; → belt.

Kuiper belt object (KBO)
  بر‌آخت ِ کمربند ِ کویپر   
barâxt-e kamarband-e Kuiper

Fr.: objet de la ceinture de Kuiper   

A → Solar System object belonging to the → Kuiper belt. The largest known objects of this type are → Pluto and its moon → Charon, → Quaoar, → Sedna, and → Orcus. See also → trans-Neptunian object.

Kuiper belt; → object.

kurtosis
  افراشتگی   
afrâštegi (#)

Fr.: aplatissement   

The measure of "peakedness" of the curve describing a frequency distribution in the region about its mode. The kurtosis of the normal distribution is 0.

From Gk. kurtosis "bulging, curvature," from kurtos "convex," kirkos "a ring;" cf. Av. skarəna- "round;" L. circus "circle, ring;" PIE base *sker- "to turn, bend."

Afrâštegi condition, state adj. of afrâšté "elevated, erect, upright," p.p. of afrâštan "to raise, exalt, extole," from Mid.Pers. abrâstan, abrâz- "to lift, raise," from ab-, from O.Pers./Av. abiy-/aiwi- "to, upon, against;" cf. Skt. abhi-, Gk. amphi- + râst "straight, direct, true;" from O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right; PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule."

L dwarf
  کوتوله‌ی ِ L   
kutule-ye L

Fr.: naine L   

A type of → brown dwarf with an → effective temperature ranging from about 2200 K to about 1300 K, corresponding to luminosities about 4 x 10-4 to 3 x 10-5 times that of the Sun. L dwarfs are intermediate in temperature between M and → T dwarfs. Their spectra in the optical show weak titanium oxide (TiO) and vanadium oxide (VO) absorption lines and strong metallic hydrides CrH (8611 and 9969 Å) and FeH (8692 and 9896 Å). Also are present strong neutral atomic lines of alkali metals Na I (8183, 8195 Å), K I (7665, 7699 Å), Rb I (7800, 7948 Å), Cs I (8521, 8943 Å), and sometimes Li I (6708 Å). The prototype of the L-dwarf class is → GD 165B. The spectral classification was first defined by Kirkpatrick et al. 1999, ApJ 519, 802 and Martin et al. 1999, AJ 118, 2466.

For the reasoning behind the choice of the letter L, see Kirkpatrick et al. 1993, ApJ 406, 701; → dwarf.

L2 Puppis
   L2 پسال   
L2 Pasâl

Fr.: L2 Puppis   

A → semiregular variable with a period of 141 days. It has a → spectral type of M5 III corresponding to an → effective temperature of ~ 3500 K. It has a radial velocity relative to the → Local Standard of Rest of 33.3 km s-1. At a distance of 64 → parsecs, L2 Pup is the second nearest → asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star next to R Doradus; it is ~ 30% closer than → Mira. Recent → near-infrared JHKL band observations by Kervella et al. (2014, 2015) show a compact dust disk around the central star, with an inner rim of 6 → astronomical units and an outer edge of 13 au, at an inclination of approximately 82°. The → circumstellar environment of L2 Pup was observed with → ALMA. The → molecular emission shows a → differentially rotating disk, inclined to a nearly edge-on position (Homan et al., 2017, A&A 601, A5 and references therein).

Star name in the → Bayer designation scheme; → Puppis.

La Nina
  لا نی‌نیا   
La Ninya (#)

Fr.: La Niña   

La Niña. A condition in which a significant decrease (more than 0.5 °C from average water temperatures) occurs in sea surface temperature (cold event) in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. La Niña has a natural 3-6 year cycle and can persist for 1-3 years. It is the counterpart to the → El Nino (warm event), and its spatial and temporal evolution in the equatorial Pacific is, to a considerable extent, the mirror image of El Niño, although La Niña events tend to be somewhat less regular in their behavior and duration.

American Sp. La Niña "the girl," to distinguish it from → El Nino.

La Silla Observatory
  نپاهشگاه ِ لا سی‌یا   
nepâhešgâh-e La Silla

Fr.: Observatoire de La Silla   

The site of the → European Southern Observatory's first observatory in Chile, inaugurated in 1969. It is located 160 km north of the town of La Serena and 600 km north of Santiago at an altitude of 2,400 m bordering the southern extremity of the Atacama Desert. La Silla is equipped with several optical telescopes with mirror diameters of up to 3.6 m. The 3.5 m New Technology Telescope was the first in the world to have a computer-controlled main mirror, a technology developed at ESO. The ESO 3.6 m telescope is now home to the world's largest extrasolar planet hunter: HARPS (High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher), a spectrograph with unrivalled precision.

From Sp. la silla "the saddle," after the apparent shape of the mountain on which the observatory is situated. Originally known as Cinchado.

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