An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
Maya calendar
  گاهشمار ِ مایا   
gâhšomâr-e Mâyâ

Fr.: calendrier Maya   

A complex calendar created by the ancient central American Mayas which uses three different dating systems in parallel: Long Count, Tzolkin, and Haab. Only Haab has a direct relationship with the length of the year. It is a solar → vague year consisting of 18 months of 20 days each, and an additional period of 5 → epagomenal days. Tzolkin is a calendar of 13 x 20 = 260 days running within Haab and is used for ritual purposes. A date is usually described by specifying its position in both the Tzolkin and Haab calendars. The least common multiple of the two calendars, called the Calendar Round, has 18,980 days, representing a cycle of 73 sacred years, or 52 vague years. The Long Count is the number of days since the start of the Maya era. There is disagreement about the beginning date of the Long Count. Most authorities agree, however, that the Long Count started in 3114 B.C., with several possible dates.

Maya, proper name; → calendar.

Möbius band
  باند ِ موی‌بیوس   
bând-e Möbius

Fr.: ruban de Möbius   

A surface with only one side, made by putting a simple twist in a long, rectangular strip of paper, then pasting the ends together.

After the German astronomer and geometer August Ferdinand Möbius (1790-1868); → band.

Mössbauer effect
  ا ُسکر ِ موسباؤر   
oskar-e Mössbauer

Fr.: effet Mössbauer   

The resonant and recoil-free emission and absorption of gamma rays by atoms bound in a solid form.

Named after Rudolf Mößbauer (1929-), a German physicist who studied gamma rays from nuclear transitions, and discovered this phenomenon in 1957; → effect.

mean
  ۱) میانگین؛ ۲) چماردن   
1) miyângin (#); 2) cemârdan

Fr.: 1) moyenne; 2) signifier, vouloir dire   

1a) General: A quantity having a value intermediate between the values of other quantities; an average.
1b) → arithmetic mean.
1c) → geometric mean.
1d) → harmonic mean.
1e) → weighted mean.
1f) → root mean square.
2) To have as its sense or signification; signify.

1) From O.Fr. meien, from L. medianus "of or that is in the middle," → median.
2) Verb of → meaning.

1) Miyângin "the middle; middle-sized; the middle pearl in a string," from miyân, → middle, + -gin a suffix forming adjectives of possession.
2) → meaning.

mean anomaly
  ناسانی ِ میانگین   
nâsâni-ye miyângin

Fr.: anomalie moyenne   

The angle between the periapsis of an orbit and the position of a hypothetical body that orbits in the same period as the real one but at a constant mean angular velocity.

mean; → anomaly.

mean catalog place
  جای ِ میانگین ِ کاتالوگی   
jâ-ye miyângin-e kâtâlogi

Fr.: position catalogue moyenne   

That point on the → celestial sphere at which an object would be seen from the solar system → barycenter affected by the → e-terms → aberration.

catalog; → mean; → place.

mean daily motion
  جنبش ِ روزانه‌ی ِ میانگین   
jenbeš-e ruzâne-ye miyângin (#)

Fr.: mouvement diurne moyen   

The average movement of a body along its orbit in one day, usually expressed in degrees.

mean; → diurnal; → motion.

mean element
  بن‌پار ِ میانگین   
bonpâr-e miyângin

Fr.: élément moyen   

An element of an adopted reference orbit that approximates the actual, perturbed orbit. Mean elements may serve as the basis for calculating perturbations.

mean; → element.

mean equator
  هموگار ِ میانگین   
hamugâr-e miyângin

Fr.: équateur moyen   

The orientation the Earth's equator would have if the nutation was subtracted.

mean; → equator.

mean equinox
  هموگان ِ میانگین   
hamugân-e miyângin

Fr.: équinoxe moyen   

A fictitious equinox whose position is that of the vernal equinox at a particular epoch with the effect of nutation removed.

mean; → equinox.

mean free path
  پویش ِ آزاد ِ میانگین   
puyeš-e âzâd-e miyângin (#)

Fr.: libre parcours moyen   

The mean distance which a particle moves between two successive collisions with other particles of the medium. Mean free path is inversely proportional to the number of particles per cm3 (n), and the collision → cross section (σ). In the case of a gas with molecules having a diameter of d, the cross section is equal to the area of a circle of radius d, i.e. σ = πd2, and the mean free path is given by: l = 1/(nσ). Taking into account the relative velocity distribution of the colliding molecules, l = 1/(√2 . nσ). For a gas at one atmosphere pressure and room temperature, the average distance between molecules is roughly 3.5 × 10-7 cm, that is some 35 times the diameter of a molecule. Taking the gas density n = 2.4 × 1014 molecules cm-3, and a typical diameter d = 2 × 10-8 cm for a molecule, the mean free path is 3.3 × 10-5 cm. This means that the average distance between collisions is about 95 times the average distance between molecules.

mean; → free; → path.

Puyeš, verbal noun of puyidan "to run, trot; wander," from Mid.Pers. pôy-, pwd- "to run;" cf. Gk. speudein "to hasten;" Lith. spudinti; âzâd, → free; miyângin, → mean.

mean life
  زیست ِ میانگین   
zist-e miyângin

Fr.: vie moyenne   

The average amount of time an unstable radioisotope exists before it decays, It is equal to 1.44 times the half-life.

mean; → life.

mean molecular weight
  وزن ِ مولکولی ِ میانگین   
vazn-e molekuli-ye miyângin (#)

Fr.: poids moléculaire moyen   

The total atomic or molecular weight divided by the total number of particles. For instance, the mean molecular weight of a plasma of pure ionized 4He would be 4 (the atomic mass number) divided by 3, the total number of particles (1 nucleus plus 2 electrons), i.e. 4/3.

mean; → molecular; → weight.

mean moon
  ماه ِ میانگین   
mâh-e miyângin (#)

Fr.: lune moyenne   

A fictitious Moon that has the same average motion as the true Moon but that is not subject to any gravitational perturbations by other bodies.

mean; → moon.

mean motion
  جنبش ِ میانگین   
jonbeš-e miyângin (#)

Fr.: mouvement moyen   

The average angular velocity of a satellite in an elliptical orbit.

mean; → motion.

mean parallax
  دیدگشت ِ میانگین   
didgašt-e miyângin

Fr.: parallaxe moyenne   

The parallax, derived by means of statistical studies of brightness and motions, for a large group of stars whose individual parallaxes cannot be measured.

mean; → parallax.

mean place
  جای ِ میانگین   
jâ-ye miyângin

Fr.: position moyenne   

An object's celestial position as determined for a given mean equator and equinox. → mean position.

mean; → place.

mean pole
  قطب ِ میانگین   
qotb-e miyângin

Fr.: pôle moyen   

The direction of the Earth's axis at a particular epoch if the nutation is ignored.

mean; → pole.

mean position
  نهش ِ میانگین   
neheš-e miyângin

Fr.: position moyenne   

Same as → mean place.

mean; → position.

mean profile
  فراپال ِ میانگین   
farâpâl-e miyângin

Fr.: profil moyen   

The shape of a pulsar's pulse as determined by averaging several pulses.

mean; → profile.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>