An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
asymmetric, asymmetrical
  ناهمامون   
nâhamâmun

Fr.: asymétrique   

Not having → symmetry.

asymmetry.

asymmetry
  ناهمامونی   
nâhamâmuni

Fr.: asymétrie   

Lack of symmetry; not symmetrical.

Gk. asymmetria "lack of proportion," from asymmetros "ill-proportioned," from → a- "not" + symmetros "commensurable, symmetrical."

Nâhamâmuni, from nâ- "not" + hamâmuni "symmetry," from ham- "together = syn" + -â-, euphonic affix, + mun "measure" + -i, noun affix.

asymptote
  ناهمساو   
nâhamsâv

Fr.: asymptote   

A straight line which is approached, but never reached, by an infinite branch of a curve, and which can be regarded as a line tangent to the curve at infinity.

Gk. asymptotos "not falling together," from → a- "not" + → syn "with" + ptotos "fallen," verbal adj. from piptein "to fall".

Nâhamsâv, literally "not touching each other," from nâ- "not" + ham "with" (akin to Gk. syn-) + sâv, agent noun of sâvidan "to touch."

asymptotic
  ناهمساوی   
nâhamsâvi

Fr.: asymptotique   

Of or pertaining to an → asymptote.

Adjective from → asymptote; → -ic.

asymptotic freedom
  آزادی ِ ناهمساوی   
âzâdi-ye nâhamsâvi

Fr.: liberté asymptotique   

The phenomenon wherein the → quarks within a → hadron get closer together, the force of containment gets weaker so that it asymptotically approaches zero for close confinement. According to → quantum chromodynamics, the quarks in close confinement are completely free to move about. On the contrary, the further we try to force the quarks apart, the greater the force of containment. The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to David Gross, Frank Wilczek, and David Politzer for their discovery of asymptotic freedom. This discovery established quantum chromodynamics as the correct theory of the → strong interaction.

asymptotic; → freedom.

asymptotic giant branch (AGB)
  شاخه‌ی ِ ناهمساوی ِ غولان   
šâxe-ye nâhamsâvi-ye qulân

Fr.: branche asymptotique des géantes   

A region of the → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram populated by evolving → low-mass to → intermediate-mass stars. These stars have an electron → degenerate core of carbon and oxygen surrounded by two burning shells of helium and hydrogen. The H and He-burning shells are activated alternately in the deep layers of the star. An extended and tenuous convection envelope, having a radius of 104-105 times the size of the core, lies above these shells. The loosely bound envelope is gradually eroded by the strong → stellar wind, which forms a dusty → circumstellar envelope out to several hundreds of stellar radii. The convective envelope, stellar atmosphere, and circumstellar envelope have a rich and changing chemical composition provided by → nucleosynthesis processes in the burning shells in the deep interior.

symptotic; → giant; → branch.

asymptotic velocity
  تندای ِ ناهمساوی   
tondâ-ye nâhamsâvi

Fr.: vitesse asymptotique   

For → stellar winds, same as → terminal velocity.

asymptotic; → velocity.

Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)
  آرست ِ بزرگ ِ میلیمتری ِ آتاکاما   
ârast-e bozorg-e milimetri-ye âtâkâmâ (ALMA)

Fr.: ALMA   

One of the largest ground-based astronomy projects and a major new facility for world astronomy located on the plain of the → Chajnantor Chilean Andes, San Pedro de Atacama, some 5000 m above sea level. ALMA will initially comprise 66 high precision antennas, with the option to expand in the future. There will be an array of fifty 12 m antennas, acting together as an → interferometer to capture → millimeter and → submillimeter wavelengths of 0.3 to 9.6 mm. It will have reconfigurable baselines ranging from 15 m to 18 km. A compact array of 7 m antenna and few 12 m diameter antennas (ACA) will be used to measure the diffuse emission. Resolutions as fine as 0''.005 will be achieved at the highest frequencies. Construction of ALMA started in 2003 and will be completed in 2012. The ALMA project is an international collaboration between Europe, Japan, and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the → European Southern Observatory (ESO). The first 12 m diameter antenna, built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, was handed over to ESO in 2008. It will shortly be joined by North American and European antennas. ALMA will allow astronomers to study the cool Universe, i.e. the molecular gas and tiny dust grains from which stars, planetary systems, galaxies, and even life are formed.

Atacama the name of a desert, west of the Andes mountains in Chile, covering a 1,000 km strip of land on the Pacific coast of South America; → large; → millimeter; → submillimeter; → array.

Aten asteroid
  سیارک ِ آتن   
sayyârak-e Aten

Fr.: astéroïde Aten   

A member of a class of → near-Earth asteroids with → perihelion distances between 0.983 and 1.0 → astronomical units. It is estimated that 6% of the total number of NEAs are Atens.

Aten; → asteroid.

atheism
  یزدان-ناباوری، خدا-ناباوری، ا-یزدان-باوری   
yazdân-nâbâvari, xodâ-nâbâvari, a-yazdân-bâvari

Fr.: athée   

1) The doctrine or belief that there is no → God.
2) Disbelief in the existence of a supreme being or beings.

a-; → theism.

Atlantic
  اتلسی   
Atlasi (#)

Fr.: atlantique   

Of or pertaining to the Atlantic Ocean.

M.E., from L. Atlanticum (mare) "the Atlantic (ocean)," from Gk. Atlantikos "of Atlas," adj. of → Atlas, in reference to Mount Atlas in NW Africa. So called because it lay beyond that mountain.

Atlas
  اتلس   
1) Atlas (#); 2) atlas (#); 3) Atlas

Fr.: Atlas   

1) The second of → Saturn's known satellites. It has a diameter of about 30 km and orbits Saturn between the outer edge of the A ring and the F ring at a mean distance of about 137,600 km. It was discovered by Richard Terrile in 1980 from Voyager 1 photos. Also known as Saturn XV.
2) A bound collection of maps often including illustrations and informative texts.
3) A blue star of visual magnitude V = 3.63, B - V = -0.09, and spectral type B8 III in the → Pleiades. Other designations: 27 Tauri, HR 1178, HD 23850. It is in fact a → triple system.

In Gk. mythology, Atlas a son of the Titan → Iapetus and the nymph Clymene. After the Titans revolted and lost a war against Zeus, Atlas was condemned by Zeus to stand forever holding up the heavens. He was identified with the Atlas Mountains in NW Africa.

atmo-
  اتمو-، هوا-   
atmo-, havâ-

Fr.: atmo-   

A combining form meaning "air, vapor," used in the formation of compound terms. air or vapour

From Gk. atmos "vapor."

Atmo-, loan from Gk., as above.
Havâ-, → air.

atmophile
  اتمودوست، هوادوست   
atmodust, havâdust

Fr.: atmophile   

atmophile element.

atmo-; → phile.

atmophile element
  بن‌پار ِ اتمودوست، ~ هوادوست، ~ گازدوست   
bonpâr-e atmodust, ~ havâdust, ~ goazdust

Fr.: élément atmophile   

In the → Goldschmidt classification, a → chemical element that is extremely → volatile, i.e., forms a gas or liquid at the surface of the Earth. The atmophile elements are usually concentrated in the terrestrial → atmosphere and → hydrosphere. They are → hydrogen (H), → carbon (C), → nitrogen (N), and → noble gas/qot>es, namely → helium (He), → neion (Ne), → argon (Ar), → krypton (Kr), → xenon (Xe), and → radon (Rn) (Pinti D.L., 2017, Atmophile Elements. In: White W. (eds) Encyclopedia of Geochemistry, Springer).

atmophile; → element.

atmosphere
  جو، هواسپهر   
javv (#), havâsepehr

Fr.: atmosphère   

1) The gaseous envelope surrounding a star, planet, or moon. Several solar system planets retain considerable atmospheres, due to their strong gravitational force. The gas motions in the planetary atmosphere, as a response to the heating, coupled with the rotation forces, generate the meteorological systems. The planetary satellites → Titan and → Triton also have atmospheres (M.S.: SDE).
2) A unit of pressure, called standard atmosphere, which is the pressure of air balanced by a column of mercury 76 cm high with a density of the mercury of 13.595 g/cm3 at normal acceleration of gravity. Such a column applies a pressure equal to its weight to each square cm, or 1.01325 x 106 dynes/cm2 = 1.01325 x 105 N/m2. Since this pressure is equal to 1.03323 kilograms of force per square centimeter, instead of it use is often made of the technical atmosphere (at), exactly equal to 1 kgf/cm2.

New L. atmosphaera, from Gk. atmos "vapor" + spharia "sphere."

Havâsepehr, from Mod.Pers. havâ, → air, + sepehr, → sphere. Javv "air, atmosphere," from Ar. jauw.

atmospheric
  جوی، هواسپهری   
javvi, havâsepehri (#)

Fr.: atmosphérique   

Pertaining to or existing in the atmosphere of an astronomical object such as a planet, moon, or star.

atmosphere; → -ic.

atmospheric absorption
  درشم ِ جوی   
daršam-e javvi

Fr.: absorption atmosphérique   

The absorption of → electromagnetic radiation in the → atmosphere mainly by → water vapor, → carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The atmosphere introduces two more limiting factors in → remote sensing: → atmospheric scattering and → atmospheric turbulence.

atmospheric; → absorption.

atmospheric circulation
  پرهونش ِ هواسپهری   
parhuneš-e havâsepehri

Fr.: circulation atmosphérique   

The large-scale movements of air around areas of high and low pressure whereby heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth. Atmospheric motion is driven by uneven heating of the planet. The atmosphere (and ocean) → transfers the excess heat from → tropics to → poles. The flow is determined by balance between → pressure gradients and the → Coriolis effect.

atmospheric; → circulation.

atmospheric dispersion
  پاشش ِ جوی   
pâšeš-e javvi

Fr.: dispersion atmosphérique   

The splitting of starlight into a spectrum in the atmosphere because the atmosphere acts as a refracting prism. This phenomenon brings about a practical problem for spectroscopic observations using a slit. → differential refraction; → atmospheric refraction.

atmospheric; → dispersion.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>