An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
binary arithmetic
  حساب ِ درین، ~ دودو‌یی   
hesâb-e dorin, ~ dodoi (#)

Fr.: arithmétique binaire   

A system of calculation in which the only numerals used are 0 and 1. All the real numbers are represented in terms of powers of 2.

binary; → arithmetic.

binary asteroid
  سیارک ِ درین   
sayyârak-e dorin

Fr.: astéroïde binaire   

A member of a population of double objects in the main → Asteroid Belt or the → Kuiper Belt which are gravitationally bound together. So far about 200 such binary systems have been identified, while their number is increasing. 243 Ida was the first binary asteroid to be discovered during the Galileo spacecraft flyby in 1993. Other examples are → Antiope and Kalliope in the main belt and QG298 in the Kuiper Belt. The importance of these objects resides in the fact that systems with well measured orbital parameters allow the total mass to be estimated. If the sizes of the components are known then their densities can be accurately calculated. Density is an important parameter since it yields information about composition and internal structure.

binary; → asteroid.

binary black hole
  سیه‌چال ِ درین   
siyah câl-e dorin

Fr.: trou noir binaire   

A → binary system consisting of two → black holes in close orbit around each other. Same as → black hole binary.

binary; → black; → hole.

binary digit (bit)
  رقم ِ درین، ~ دودو‌یی، بیت   
raqam-e dorin, ~ dodoi, bit

Fr.: chiffre binaire   

Either of the digits 0 or 1, used in the → binary number system.

binary, → digit.

binary frequency
  بسامد ِ درین‌ها   
basâmad-e dorinhâ

Fr.: fréquence des binaires   

The fraction of stars that have at least one → companion. It is at least 50%. The binary fraction appears to increase with increasing → primary star mass, at least among the more massive stars: the → O stars and → B stars have a companion frequency of at least 70%, while for the → G stars the binary frequency is around 50% and the → M stars may have an even lower binary frequency of around 30-40%. Brown dwarfs are rare as companions to lower-main-sequence stars, although brown-dwarf binaries appear not to be rare. An increase in binary frequency with mass would be expected if most stars form in → multiple systems that disintegrate, since the more massive stars would then preferentially remain in binaries while the less massive ones would preferentially be ejected as single stars (see Richard B. Larson, 2001, in IAU Symposium 200, p. 93 and references therein).

binary; → frequency.

binary galaxy
  کهکشان ِ درین   
kahkašân-e dorin

Fr.: galaxie binaire   

A pair of galaxies in orbit around each other.

binary; → galaxy.

Kahkašân, → galaxy; dorinbinary.

binary number system
  راژمان ِ عددهای ِ درینی   
râžmân-e adadhâ-ye dirini

Fr.: système des nombres binaires   

A → numeral system that has 2 as its base and uses only two digits, 0 and 1. The positional value of each digit in a binary number is twice the place value of the digit of its right side. Each binary digit is known as a bit. The decimal numbers from 0 to 10 are thus in binary 0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, 1000, 1001, and 1010. And, for example, the binary number 111012 represents the decimal number (1 × 24) + (1 × 23) + (1 × 22) + (0 × 21) + (1 × 20), or 29. In electronics, binary numbers are the flow of information in the form of zeros and ones used by computers. Computers use it to manipulate and store all of their data including numbers, words, videos, graphics, and music.

binary; → number; → system.

binary operation
  آپارش ِ درین   
âpâreš-e dorin

Fr.: opération binaire   

A mathematical operation that combines two numbers, quantities, sets, etc., to give a third. For example, multiplication of two numbers is a binary operation.
A binary operation * on a set S is → commutative if a * b = b * a for all a, bS.
A binary operation * on a set S is → associative if (a * b) * c = a * (b * c) for all a, b, cS.

binary; → operation.

binary pulsar
  پولسار ِ درین، تپار ِ ~   
pulsâr-e dorin, tapâr-e ~

Fr.: pulsar binaire   

A pulsar in a → binary system, the companion of which often being a → neutron star or a → white dwarf. The only known binary system with two pulsars components is the → double pulsar. As of 2010 about 70 binary pulsars have been identified. They are ideal laboratories for testing and studying the effects predicted by → general relativity, such as → spin precession, → Shapiro time delay, and → gravitational waves. The prototype, called PSR 1913+16, was discovered in 1974 by Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor, Jr., who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1993. → Hulse-Taylor pulsar.

binary; → pulsar.

binary star
  ستاره‌ی ِ درین   
setâre-ye dorin

Fr.: étoile binaire   

Two stars gravitationally bound to each other, so that they revolve around their common center of gravity. → double star; → spectroscopic binary.

binary; → star.

Setâré, → star; dorin, → binary.

binary supermassive black hole
  سیه‌چال ِ ابر-پرجرم ِ درین   
siyah-câl-e abar-porjerm-e dorin

Fr.: trou noir supermassif double   

A → dual supermassive black hole whose components are separated by a few parsecs.

binary; → supermassive; → black; → hole.

binary system
  راژمان ِ درین   
râžmân-e dorin

Fr.: système binaire   

Two astronomical objects revolving around their common center of mass.

binary; → system.

Râžmân, → system; dorinbinary.

binary tree
  درخت ِ درین   
deraxt-e dorin

Fr.: arbre binaire   

In → graph theory, an → ordered tree with all → nodes having at most two → children.

binary; → tree.

bind
  بندیدن   
bandidan (#)

Fr.: lier   

To tie, to fasten, to cause ti stick together.

O.E. bindan "to tie up with bonds," PIE base *bhendh- "to bind;" cf. Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," bandhah "a tying, bandage."

Bandidan "to bind, confine" [Mo'in, Dehxodâ], from band "band, tie" + -idan infinitive suffix; cognate with E. bind, as explained above.

binding energy
  کاروژ ِ بندش، ~ همگیری   
kâruž-e bandeš, ~ hamgiri

Fr.: énergie de liaison   

1) Of a gravitational system, the difference in energies between the hypothetical state where all bodies of the system are infinitely separated from each other and the actual bound state.
2) The energy which must be supplied to a nucleus in order to cause it to decompose into its constituent neutrons and protons.

Binding, noun from → bind; → energy.

Kâruž, → energy; bandeš noun from bandidan, → bind.

binning
  باوینش   
bâvineš

Fr.: binage   

Combining a few adjacent CCD pixels in bins, during readout; the method used to assemble the bins and transfer the charge by means of an electronic clock. Binning improves signal-to-noise ratio at the expense of spatial resolution.

Binning, from → bin.

Bâvineš, from bâvin, → bin.

binoculars
  دوچشمی، دوربین ِ ~   
docašmi (#), durbin-e ~ (#)

Fr.: binoculaire   

A small optical instrument with two tubes that is used to magnify the view of distant or astronomical objects. → prism binoculars.

From Fr. binoculaire, from binocle, from L. bini "double" (L. bis, bi- "twice," Av. biš "twice") + ocularis "of the eye," from oculus "eye" (compare with Av. axš-, aš- "eye," Skt. akshi- "eye," Gk. ops "eye," opsis "sight, appearance," from PIE okw- "to see;" also O.E. ege, eage, from P.Gmc. *augon, Goth. augo, Lith. akis, Armenian aku).

Docašmi "binocular," from do, → two + cašm, → eye, + -i adj. suffix; durbin, → telescope.

binomial
  دونامین   
donâmin

Fr.: 1) binôme; 2) binomial   

1a) An algebraic expression containing 2 terms, as x + y and 2x2 - 3x. In other words, a → polynomial with 2 terms.
1b) Biology: A pair of Latin (or latinized) words forming a scientific name for organisms. The first word represents the genus, and the second the species.
2) Of, pertaining to, or consisting of a binomial.

From L.L. binomi(us) "having two names," + → -al, → nominal.

binomial coefficient
  همگر ِ دونامین   
hamgar-e donâmin

Fr.: coefficient binomial   

The factor multiplying the variable in a term of a → binomial expansion. For example, in (x + y)4 = x4 + 4x3y + 6x2y2 + 4xy3 + y4 the binomial coefficients are 1, 4, 6, 4, and 1. In general, the r-th binomial coefficient in the expression (x + y)n is: (n,r) = n!/[r!(n - r)!].

binomial; → coefficient.

binomial differential
  دگرسانه‌ی ِ دونامین   
degarsâne-ye donâmin

Fr.: binôme différentiel   

An expression of the form xm(a + bxn)pdx, where m, n, p, a, and b are constants.

binomial; → differential.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>