An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
superclustering
  اَبَر-خوشه بندی   
abar-xuše bandi

Fr.:   

Grouping of galaxies in supercluster structure.

super-; → clustering

superconductivity
  اَبَر-هازندگی   
abar-hâzandegi

Fr.: superconductivité   

The phenomenon in which certain materials, when cooled to a sufficiently low temperature, lose all resistance to the flow of electricity.

super-; → conductivity

superconductor
  اَبَر-هازنده   
abar-hâzandé

Fr.: superconducteur   

A material which shows almost perfect conductivity at temperatures approaching absolute zero.

super-; → conductor.

supercooling
  اَبَر-سردش   
abar-sardeš

Fr.: surfusion   

The process by which a liquid or a gas is cooled below the temperature at which a → phase transition should occur. For example, water can be cooled well below the → freezing point without freezing (as often happens in the upper atmosphere). The introduction of an → impurity or surface can trigger freezing.

super-; → cooling.

supercritical
  ابر-پرژنی   
abar-paržani

Fr.: supercritique   

1) Thermodynamics: Describing a condition in which a substance has a temperature or pressure above its critical value of temperature or pressure.
2) Nuclear physics: Of or relating to an arrangement of → fissile material where more neutrons are being produced than are wasted and escape.

super-; → critical.

supercritical fluid
  شاره‌ی ِ ابر-پرژنی   
šârre-ye abar-paržani

Fr.: fluide supercritique   

A fluid that is at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point. In these conditions the substance acquires unique characteristics of density and mobility. Supercritical fluids exist deep inside some planets; for example, there is supercritical water deep inside the Earth.

supercritical; → fluid.

superfluid
  اَبَر-شاره   
abar-šâré

Fr.: superfluide   

A → fluid that exhibits frictionless flow, very high heat → conductivity, and other unusual physical properties. For example, → liquid helium at the temperature about 2.17 K (→ lambda point) becomes a zero → viscosity fluid which will move rapidly through any pore in the apparatus. See also → helium II.

super-; → fluid

superfluidity
  اَبَر-شارگی   
abar-šâregi

Fr.: superfluidité   

The phenomenon occurring in → liquid helium (→ helium I) cooled below the → lambda point temperature of 2.17 K, whereby it flows freely with no measurable → friction and → viscosity.

super-; → fluidity.

supergalactic
  ابرکهکشانی   
abarkahkašâni

Fr.: supergalactique   

Of or pertaining to a system composed of nearby groups and clusters of galaxies in the → local Universe. Se also → galaxy cluster.

super-; → galactic.

supergalactic coordinate system
  راژمان ِ هماراهای ابرکهکشانی   
râžmân-e hamârâhâ-ye abarkahkašâni

Fr.: système des coordonnées supergalactiques   

A spherical → coordinate system in which the → equator is the → supergalactic plane. Supergalactic longitude, SGL, is measured → counterclockwise from direction l = 137.37 deg, b = 0 deg (between 0 and 360 deg). The zero point for supergalactic longitude is defined by the intersection of this plane with the → Galactic plane. In the → equatorial coordinate system (J2000) this is approximately 2.82 h, +59.5 deg. Supergalactic latitude, SGB, is measured from the supergalactic plane, positive northward and negative southward. The North Supergalactic Pole (SGB=90 deg) lies at galactic coordinates l = 47.37 deg, b = +6.32 degrees, corresponding to the equatorial coordinate system (J2000) 18.9 h, +15.7 deg.

supergalactic; → coordinate; → system.

supergalactic latitude
  ورونای ِ ابرکهکشانی   
varunâ-ye abarkahkašâni

Fr.: latitude supergalactique   

supergalactic coordinate system.

supergalactic; → latitude.

supergalactic longitude
  درژنای ِ ابرکهکشانی   
derežnâ-ye abarkahkašâni

Fr.: longitude supergalactique   

supergalactic coordinate system.

supergalactic; → longitude.

supergalactic plane
  هامن ِ ابرکهکشانی   
hâmon-e abarkahkašâni

Fr.: plan supergalactique   

The symmetry plane of the → Local Supercluster, where density of galaxies in our environment is the largest. The plane passes through the → Virgo cluster of galaxies, about which many of the brightest galaxies in the sky are concentrated. The supergalactic plane was recognized by Gérard de Vaucouleurs (1918-1995) in 1953 from the  → Shapley-Ames catalogue.

supergalactic; → plane.

supergiant
  اَبَر-غول   
abar-qul

Fr.: supergéante   

A star with maximum intrinsic brightness and low density. The radius of a supergiant can be as large as 1000 times that of the Sun. See also → blue supergiant; → red supergiant; → yellow supergiant.

super-; → giant

supergranulation cell
  یاخته‌ی ِ اَبَر-دانه‌بندی   
yâxte-ye abar-dâne-bandi

Fr.: cellule de supergranulation   

One of a number of large convective cells (about 15,000-30,000 km in diameter) in the solar photosphere, distributed fairly uniformly over the solar disk, that last longer than a day.

super-; → granulation; → cell.

superheated vapor
  بخار ِ اَبَر-گرمیده   
boxâr-e abar-garmidé

Fr.: vapeur surchauffée   

A vapor that has been heated above its boiling point temperature corresponding to the pressure.

super-; → heat; → vapor.

superheating
  اَبَر-گرمش، اَبَر-گرمایش   
abar-garmeš, abar-garmâyeš

Fr.: surchauffe   

The process in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling. Superheating is achieved by heating a homogeneous substance in a clean container, free of nucleation sites.

super-; → heating.

superheterodyne receiver
  گیرنده‌ی ِ اَبَر-هترودینی   
girande-ye abar-heterodini (#)

Fr.: récepteur superhétérodyne   

A radio receiver which uses the → superheterodyne technique.

super-; → heterodyne; → receiver.

superheterodyne technique
  تشنیک ِ اَبَر-هترودین   
tašnik-e abar-heterodin

Fr.: technique superhétérodyne   

The technique used in a radio receiver in which the frequency of an incoming signal is changed by adding it to a signal generated within the receiver to produce fluctuations or beats of a frequency equal to the difference between the two signals. See also → mixer.

superheterodyne receiver; → technique.

superion
  ابریون   
abaryon

Fr.: superion   

An ion which is responsible for the existence of a strong → P Cygni profile observed in many early O stars. Since the → effective temperature of the star is too low to produce such an ion appreciably, the ion is termed a superion. For example, the ion O5+ which is at the origin of a strong O VI λλ1031, 1038 P Cygni profile observed in many O stars. Similarly, the lines due to N V λλ1238, 1242 belong to the superion category, while in later spectral types C IV λλ1548, 1552 also falls into this category. Initial modeling of the → ultraviolet line superions assumed the → stellar winds were smooth and homogeneous. However it is now generally accepted that the winds are (→ clumped wind), and this can have a profound influence on the formation of the superion profiles. We know that the strength of lines due to the superions is strongly influenced by the → interclump medium. Indeed, the interclump medium may be more important for producing the lines than are the clumps -- this is simply a consequence of the higher ionization in the interclump medium which occurs because of its lower density (see D. John Hillier, 2020, https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4434/8/3/60/htm, and references therein).

super-; → ion.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>