An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
calcium
  کلسیوم   
kalsiom (#)

Fr.: calcium   

A metallic chemical element; symbol Ca. → Atomic number 20; → atomic weight 40.08; → melting point about 839°C; → boiling point 1,484°C; → specific gravity 1.55 at 20°C; → valence +2. It is fifth in abundance in the Earth's crust, of which it forms more than 3%. It is an essential constituent of leaves, bones, teeth, and shells. Never found in nature uncombined, it occurs abundantly as limestone, gypsum, and fluorite. Calcium has several radioactive isotopes. It was first isolated by the British chemist Humphry Davy in 1808.

Coined by Sir Humphry Davy from L. calx (genitive calcis) "lime (CaO) or limestone (CaCO3)" in which it was found, from Gk. khalix "small pebble," see also → calculate, + → -ium.

calcium break
  گسست ِ کلسیوم   
gosast-e kalsiom

Fr.: coupure de calcium   

A discontinuity in the spectrum of galaxies near the Ca II → H and K lines at about 4000 Å. The Ca break is the most prominent feature in the spectra of elliptical galaxies. Its strength is given by the → calcium break index.

calcium; → break.

calcium break index
  دیشن ِ گسست ِ کلسیوم   
dišan-e gosast-e kalsiom

Fr.: indice de la coupure de calcium   

The strength of the → calcium break, as measured from the fluxes in the intervals 3750-3950 Å and 4050-4250 Å. It is given by the expression Ca-break[%] = 100 · (fupper - flower)/fupper, where fupper and flower are the mean fluxes measured in the 3750-3950 Å and 4050-4250 Å bands, respectively, in the rest frame (Dressler & Shectman 1987, AJ 94, 899).

calcium; → break; → index.

calculate
  افماردن   
afmârdan

Fr.: calculer   

To perform a mathematical process; to reckon; to make an estimate of; evaluate. → compute; → count; → mathematics; → statistics.

Calculate, from L.L. calculare, calculat-, from L. calculus "small stone, pebble" (used in reckoning), dim. of calx, calc- "limestone," from Gk. khalix "small pebble," kakhlex "round pebble,"cf. O.E. hægl, hagol "hale," from W.Gmc. *haglaz, O.H.G. hagal, O.N. hagl, Ger. Hagel "hail", PIE *kaghlo- "pebble, hail." The Pers. cognate is probably the Lori hogela "big stone."

Afmârdan, from prefix af- + stem mar- + infinitive suffix -idan. The Mod.Pers. prefix af- "to, up, upon," occurring in several words (e.g. afzudan, afruxtan, afsar, afsâr, afqân), derives from O.Pers./Av. abiy-/aiwi- "to, upon, against;" cf. Skt. abhi-, Gk. amphi-. The stem mar-, mâr- "count, reckon, measure," which occurs in several Mid./Mod.Pers. terms (e.g. ošmârdan, šomârdan, šomordan "to count, to calculate," âmâr "computation, arithmetic; statistics," âmârdan "to reckon, to calculate," bimar "countless," nahmâr "great, large, big"), is related to the Av. base mar- "to have in mind, remember, recall," hišmar-; cf. Skt. smr-, smarati "to remember, he remembers," L. memor, memoria, Gk. mermera "care," martyr "witness."

calculation
  افمارش   
afmâreš

Fr.: calcul   

The act, process, or result of calculating.

Calculation, noun from → calculate.

Afmâreš, verbal noun from afmârdancalculate.

calculator
  افمارگر   
afmârgar

Fr.: calculateur   

A small electronic device that performs calculations.

Calculator, from → calculate + → -tor.

Afmârgar, from afmârcalculate + -gar agent suffix, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan, O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "makes," cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").

calculus
  افماریک   
afmârik

Fr.: calcul différentiel et intégral   

The branch of mathematics that deals with limits and the → differentiation and → integration of → functions of one or more → variables. Same as → infinitesimal calculus and → differential calculus .

L. calculus "small stone," from calx, calcis "limestone," → calculate, + -ulus diminutive suffix, → -ule.

Afmârik, from afmâr, → calculate + Pers. suffix -ik denoting a subject, a branch of sciences, a discipline, → ics.

calculus of finite differences
  افماریک ِ دگرسانی‌ها‌ی ِ کرانمند   
afmârik-e degarsânihâ-ye karânmand

Fr.: calcul des différences finies   

A → claculus based on the properties of the successive values of → variable quantities and their → differences or → increments.

calculus, → finite, → difference.

Afmârik, → calculus, degarsânihâ, plural of degarsân, → difference, karânmand, → finite.

calculus of probabilities
  افماریک ِ شوانایی‌ها   
afmârik-e šavânâihâ

Fr.: calcul des probabilités   

A branch of mathematics that deals with the calculation of the probabilities of events.

calculus; → probability.

Afmârik, → calculus; šavânâihâ, plural of šavânâiprobability.

calculus of residues
  افماریک ِ مانده‌ها   
afmârik-e mândehâ

Fr.: calcul des résidus   

The application of → Cauchy's theorem to compute residues and poles, evaluate contour integrals, sum infinite series, and carry out related calculations.

calculus; residue from O.Fr. résidu, from L. residuum "a remainder," neut. of residuus "remaining, left over," from residere "remain behind."

Afmârik, → calculus; mândehâ, plural of mândé "remained," from mândan "to remain," Mid.Pers. mânidan, mânenitan, O.Pers./Av. man- "to remain, to stay," Skt. mand-, mamandhi "to stand still, pause," Gk. menein "to wait."

calculus of tensors
  افماریک ِ تانسورها   
afmârik-e tânsorhâ

Fr.: calcul tensoriel   

The branch of mathematics dealing with the differentiation of tensors.

calculus; → tensor.

Afmârik, → calculus; → tensor.

calculus of variations
  افماریک ِ ورتش‌ها   
afmârik-e vartešhâ

Fr.: calcul des variations   

The study of maximum and minimum properties of → definite integrals.

calculus; → variation.

Afmârik, → calculus; vartešvariation.

calculus of vectors
  افماریک ِ بردارها   
afmârik-e bordârhâ

Fr.: calcul vectoriel   

The area of calculus dealing with differentiation and integration of vector-valued functions; a sub-area of tensor calculus.

calculus; → vector.

Afmârik, → calculus; bordâr, → vector.

caldera
  تیان   
tiyân

Fr.: caldeira   

A large, roughly circular, → crater with diameter at least three or four times depth on the summit or in the side of a → volcano. A caldera can form from a volcanic blast or the collapse of a volcanic cone into an emptied → magma chamber.

From Sp. caldera "cauldron, kettle," also name of a crater on Canary Islands, from L. caldarius "of warming," from calidus "warm, hot," → calorie.

Tiyân "large cauldron; cauldron used for warming water in a communal bathhouse," of unknown origin.

Caldwell Catalog
  کاتالوگ ِ کالدول   
kâtâlog-e Caldwell

Fr.: catalogue de Caldwell   

A collection of 109 impressive celestial objects compiled for amateur astronomers. These objects (→ star clusters, → nebulae, → supernova remnants, and → galaxies), selected from the → New General Catalog and the → Index Catalog, are not present in the → Messier catalog.

Named after Patrick Caldwell Moore (1923-2012), English amateur astronomer, who compiled the catalog in 1995; → catalog.

calendar
  ۱) گاهشمار، گاهشماری، گاهمار؛ ۲) سالنامه   
1) gâhšomâr (#), gâhšomâri (#), gâhmâr; 2) sâlnâmé (#)

Fr.: calendrier   

1) Any of various systems for measuring and recording the passage of time by dividing the year into days, weeks, and months.
2) A table showing the months, weeks, and days in at least one specific year.
chronology.

M.E. calender, from O.Fr. calendier, from L. calendarium "account book," from kalendae "calends" the first day of the Roman month, from calare "to announce solemnly, call out," as the priests did in proclaiming the new moon that marked the calends, from PIE base *kele- "to call, shout" (cf. Skt. usakala "cock," lit. "dawn-calling;" Gk. kaleo "to call," kelados "noise," kledon "report, fame;" O.H.G. halan, O.N. kalla "to call;" O.E. hlowan "to low;" Lith. kalba "language").

Gâhšomâr, gâhšomâri, gâhmâr from gâh "time," Mid.Pers. gâh, gâs, + šomâr, mâr "reckoning," → calculate.
Sâlnâmé, from sâl, → year, + nâmé "a writing, letter, book."

calendar day
  روز ِ گاهشماری، ~ گاهماری   
ruz-e gâhšomâri, ~ gâhmâri

Fr.: jour du calendrier   

A period of 24 hours, from one midnight to the following midnight.

calendar; → day.

calendar month
  ماه ِ گاهشماری، ~ گاهماری   
mâh-e gâhšomâri, ~ gâhmâri

Fr.: mois du calendrier   

One of the periods into which a calendar is divided, ordinarily 12, but in earlier systems 10 (the first Roman calendar under Romulus) or 13 (ancient Iranian calendar using a month intercalation).

calendar; → month.

calendar year
  سال ِ گاهشماری، ~ گاهماری   
sâl-e gâhšomâri, ~ gâhmâri

Fr.: année du calendrier   

The time interval between the new year's day in a given calendar system and the day before the following new year's day. In the Gregorian system the calendar year begins on January 1 and ends on December 31. In the Iranian calendar it begins on Farvardin 1, the day closest to the spring equinox and ends on Esfand 29 or 30.

calendar; → year.

calf
  ۱) گوگ، گوساله؛ ۲) پویز   
1) gug (#), gusâlé (#); 2) poviz

Fr.: 1) veau; 2) mollet   

1) Young of a bovine animal. See also → calve, → glacier calving.
2) The fleshy part of a person's → leg below the → knee.

M.E., from O.E. cealf, calf, cognate with M.Du. calf, Ger. Kalb, Gothic kalbo.

1) Gug (Dehxodâ), variant gog "calf;" probably from Proto-Ir. *gao-ka "baby cow, little caow," from *gao- "cow, bull," → cow, + suffix -*ak.
Gusâlé, literally "young in years," from gu, → cow, + sâl, → year.
2) Poviz, from Laki poviz "calf," may be ultimately from *povik, from *pov variant of "leg, → foot" + suffix-ik, → -ics; cf. Ilâmi, Nahâvandi piz "the leg calf."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>