<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>
C-type asteroid sayârak-e gune-ye C Fr.: astéroïde de type C An → asteroid that belongs to the family of → carbonaceous asteroids. They are → depleted in → hydrogen and → helium, have chemical ratios akin to solar composition, and show low → albedo (0.03-0.09). C-type asteroids are the most common variety, forming around 75% of known asteroids. They inhabit → main belt's outer regions. C stands for → carbonaceous; → type; → asteroid. |
Caelum qalam (#) Fr.: Burin The Sculptor's Chisel. A small inconspicuous → constellation in the southern sky, representing a sculptor's chisel. Its brightest star, Alpha Caeli, is magnitude 4.5. Approximate position: R.A. 4.5 h, Dec.: -40°; abbreviation: Cae, genitive form Caeli. L. caelum sculptor's "chisel." Qalam "chisel," from Ar., related to L. caelum? |
cage qafas (#) Fr.: cage 1) An enclosure, usually made with bars or wire, for keeping birds or wild animals. M.E. from O.Fr. cage, from L. cavea "hollow place, enclosure for animals," cognate with Pers. kâv "hollow," → concave. Qafas "cage," of unknown origin. |
CAI meteorite šaxâne-ye CAI, šahânsang-e ~ Fr.: météorite de type CAI
A member of a group of tiny (millimeter to centimeter) light-colored meteorites found often with → chondrules. They consist of high vaporization minerals, including → silicates and → oxides of Ca, Al, and Ti, but are quite poor in Fe. Compared to common → chondrules, which are uniformly spherical, their shapes are less regular. They appear to be 2-3 million years older than chondrules. CAI meteorites are probably the oldest solid materials to have formed in the → solar nebula. CAI, short for → Calcium, → Aluminium, and → Inclusion; → meteorite. |
CAK model model-e CAK Fr.: modèle CAK The standard model of → radiation-driven winds in which the acceleration of → stellar wind is provided by the → absorption and → scattering of ultraviolet photons in ions of abundant elements (→ CNO, → iron peak) in the → Lyman continuum. The model was developed by Castor et al. (1975), who assumed that the forces due to the radiative lines and the pressure gradients are functions of local velocity gradient, and used a large number (~ 10^{5}) of lines which have a statistical distribution in line strengths. The model led to predictions of → mass loss rates (M_dot) and terminal velocities as a function of stellar properties and the line statistics parameters. With the modifications by Friend and Abbott (1986), Pauldrach et al. (1986), and Kudritzki et al. (1989), CAK multi-line theory gives good agreement with observationally derived values of mass loss rate and → terminal velocity (v_{∞}). CAK wind solutions predict the terminal velocity to be proportional to the → escape velocity and the mass loss rate to depend strongly on the stellar → luminosity. Observations over the past decades have shown that these main wind parameters, M_dot and v_{∞}, indeed behave as predicted by CAK. This basic agreement between observations and theory provides strong evidence that the winds from → massive stars are driven by → radiation pressure and this has favored the CAK formalism. See also → multiple scattering. See the review by J. Puls et al. 2008, Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 16, 209. CAK, the initials of the researchers who developed the model: J.I. Castor, D.C. Abbott, and R.I. Klein(1975, Radiation-driven winds in Of stars, ApJ 195, 157); → model. |
Calabash Nebula Miq-e Kââbâš Fr.: nébuleuse de l'œuf pourri A → bipolar nebula and → OH/IR source with technical designation OH 231.8+4.2. It is a → proto-planetary nebula (PPN) 1.4 → light-years long and located some 5,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation → Puppis. The obscured → central star, named QX Pup, is classified as M9-10 III and has a → Mira-like variability consistent with an evolved → asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. The late evolution of this object may have been complex since it has a binary → companion star (of type A0 V) that has been indirectly identified from analysis of the spectrum of the hidden central source reflected by the nebular dust. The system has a total luminosity of ~ 10^{4} Lsun and its systemic velocity relative to the → Local Standard of Rest is V_{LSR} ~ 34 km s^{-1}. OH 231.8+4.2 is very likely a member of the → open cluster M46 with a progenitor mass of ~ 3 Msun. The nebula is also known as the Rotten Egg Nebula because it contains a lot of sulphur, an element that, when combined with other elements, smells like a rotten egg (see, e.g., Prieto et al., 2015, A&A, 575, A84). The name "Calabash Nebula" was first proposed by Icke & Preston, 1989, A&A, 211, 409. It refers to the apparent form of the object which resembles a calabash "a tree that has large, rounded gourdlike fruit; the fruit of any of these plants," from Sp. calabaza, possibly from Ar. qar'ah yâbisah "dry gourd," from Pers. kharabuz, used of various large melons; → nebula. |
calcium kalsiom (#) Fr.: calcium A metallic chemical element; symbol Ca. → Atomic number 20; → atomic weight 40.08; → melting point about 839°C; → boiling point 1,484°C; → specific gravity 1.55 at 20°C; → valence +2. It is fifth in abundance in the Earth's crust, of which it forms more than 3%. It is an essential constituent of leaves, bones, teeth, and shells. Never found in nature uncombined, it occurs abundantly as limestone, gypsum, and fluorite. Calcium has several radioactive isotopes. It was first isolated by the British chemist Humphry Davy in 1808. Coined by Sir Humphry Davy from L. calx (genitive calcis) "lime (CaO) or limestone (CaCO_{3})" in which it was found, from Gk. khalix "small pebble," see also → calculate, + → -ium. |
calcium break gosast-e kalsiom Fr.: coupure de calcium A discontinuity in the spectrum of galaxies near the Ca II → H and K lines at about 4000 Å. The Ca break is the most prominent feature in the spectra of elliptical galaxies. Its strength is given by the → calcium break index. |
calcium break index dišan-e gosast-e kalsiom Fr.: indice de la coupure de calcium The strength of the → calcium break, as measured from the fluxes in the intervals 3750-3950 Å and 4050-4250 Å. It is given by the expression Ca-break[%] = 100 · (f_{upper} - f_{lower})/f_{upper}, where f_{upper} and f_{lower} are the mean fluxes measured in the 3750-3950 Å and 4050-4250 Å bands, respectively, in the rest frame (Dressler & Shectman 1987, AJ 94, 899). |
calculate afmârdan Fr.: calculer To perform a mathematical process; to reckon; to make an estimate of; evaluate. → compute; → count; → mathematics; → statistics. Calculate, from L.L. calculare, calculat-, from L. calculus "small stone, pebble" (used in reckoning), dim. of calx, calc- "limestone," from Gk. khalix "small pebble," kakhlex "round pebble,"cf. O.E. hægl, hagol "hale," from W.Gmc. *haglaz, O.H.G. hagal, O.N. hagl, Ger. Hagel "hail", PIE *kaghlo- "pebble, hail." The Pers. cognate is probably the Lori hogela "big stone." Afmârdan, from prefix af- + stem mar- + infinitive suffix -idan. The Mod.Pers. prefix af- "to, up, upon," occurring in several words (e.g. afzudan, afruxtan, afsar, afsâr, afqân), derives from O.Pers./Av. abiy-/aiwi- "to, upon, against;" cf. Skt. abhi-, Gk. amphi-. The stem mar-, mâr- "count, reckon, measure," which occurs in several Mid./Mod.Pers. terms (e.g. ošmârdan, šomârdan, šomordan "to count, to calculate," âmâr "computation, arithmetic; statistics," âmârdan "to reckon, to calculate," bimar "countless," nahmâr "great, large, big"), is related to the Av. base mar- "to have in mind, remember, recall," hišmar-; cf. Skt. smr-, smarati "to remember, he remembers," L. memor, memoria, Gk. mermera "care," martyr "witness." |
calculation afmâreš Fr.: calcul The act, process, or result of calculating. Calculation, noun from → calculate. Afmâreš, verbal noun from afmârdan→ calculate. |
calculator afmârgar Fr.: calculateur A small electronic device that performs calculations. Calculator, from → calculate + → -tor. Afmârgar, from afmâr→ calculate + -gar agent suffix, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan, O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "makes," cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base k^{w}er- "to do, to make"). |
calculus afmârik Fr.: calcul différentiel et intégral The branch of mathematics that deals with limits and the → differentiation and → integration of → functions of one or more → variables. Same as → infinitesimal calculus and → differential calculus . L. calculus "small stone," from calx, calcis "limestone," → calculate, + -ulus diminutive suffix, → -ule. Afmârik, from afmâr, → calculate + Pers. suffix -ik denoting a subject, a branch of sciences, a discipline, → ics. |
calculus of finite differences afmârik-e degarsânihâ-ye karânmand Fr.: calcul des différences finies A → claculus based on the properties of the successive values of → variable quantities and their → differences or → increments. → calculus, → finite, → difference. Afmârik, → calculus, degarsânihâ, plural of degarsân, → difference, karânmand, → finite. |
calculus of probabilities afmârik-e šavânâihâ Fr.: calcul des probabilités A branch of mathematics that deals with the calculation of the probabilities of events. → calculus; → probability. Afmârik, → calculus; šavânâihâ, plural of šavânâi→ probability. |
calculus of residues afmârik-e munakhâ Fr.: calcul des résidus The application of → Cauchy's theorem to compute residues and poles, evaluate contour integrals, sum infinite series, and carry out related calculations. |
calculus of tensors afmârik-e tânsorhâ Fr.: calcul tensoriel The branch of mathematics dealing with the differentiation of tensors. |
calculus of variations afmârik-e vartešhâ Fr.: calcul des variations The study of maximum and minimum properties of → definite integrals. |
calculus of vectors afmârik-e bordârhâ Fr.: calcul vectoriel The area of calculus dealing with differentiation and integration of vector-valued functions; a sub-area of tensor calculus. |
caldera tiyân Fr.: caldeira A large, roughly circular, → crater with diameter at least three or four times depth on the summit or in the side of a → volcano. A caldera can form from a volcanic blast or the collapse of a volcanic cone into an emptied → magma chamber. From Sp. caldera "cauldron, kettle," also name of a crater on Canary Islands, from L. caldarius "of warming," from calidus "warm, hot," → calorie. Tiyân "large cauldron; cauldron used for warming water in a communal bathhouse," of unknown origin. |
<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>