An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
hypernova
  هیپرنو‌اَختر   
hiper-nowaxtar

Fr.: hypernova   

A highly energetic → supernova explosion. This phenomenon, which is more violent than a typical → supernova event, is accompanied by a → gamma-ray burst.

hyper-; → nova.

hyperon
  هیپرون   
hiperon (#)

Fr.: hypéron   

An unstable elementary particles, belonging to the class called → baryons, which have greater mass than the neutron but very short lives (10-8 to 10-10 seconds).

From → hyper- + → -on a suffix used in the names of elementary particles (gluon; meson; neutron; graviton, and so on).

hypersonic
  هیپرصدایی   
hipersedâyi

Fr.: hypersonique   

In aerodynamics, adjective used to describe a → sound speed in excess of Mach 5. See also → supersonic.

Hypersonic, from → hyper- + → sonic.

hypervelocity star (HVS)
  ستاره‌ی ِ هیپرتند   
setâre-ye hipertond

Fr.: étoile hypervéloce   

A star whose velocity is so great that it will escape the → gravitational potential of our → Galaxy. Depending on the location and direction of motion, this criterion typically corresponds to a stellar velocity in the Galactic → rest frame larger than 400 km s-1, and up to about 1200 km s-1. The nature of the HVSs spans a wide range of types from → OB stars, to metal-poor → F-type stars and G/K dwarfs. While there is evidence from many late-type B HVSs in the → halo to originate from the Galactic → supermassive black hole (SMBH), other HVSs seem to originate from the → galactic disk. HVSs can obtain their large velocities from a number of different processes:
1) → Tidal disruption of → close binary stars by the central SMBH of the Milky Way. In this process one star is captured by the SMBH while the other is ejected at high speed via the → gravitational slingshot mechanism.
2) Exchange encounters in other dense stellar environments between hard binaries (→ hard binary) and → massive stars may cause stars to be ejected and escape our Galaxy.
3) Disruption of close binaries via → supernova explosions. The → runaway velocities of both ejected stars can reach large values when asymmetric supernovae are considered, i.e. when the newborn → neutron star receives a momentum kick at birth.
(see, e.g., T. M. Tauris, 2014, and references therein, arXiv:1412.0657).

hyper-; → velocity; → star.

hypo-
  اوپا-   
upâ-

Fr.: hypo-   

A Gk. prefix denoting "under."

Gk. hypo "under" (prep.), "below" (adv.); cognate with L. sub- and O.Pers./Av. upā, as below.

Upâ-, from O.Pers. upā (prep.) "under, with;" Av. upā, upa (prep.; prevb) "toward, with, on, in" (upā.gam- "to arrive at," upāpa- "living in the water," upa.naxturušu "bordering on the night"); Mod.Pers. "with," from abâ; cf. Skt. úpa (adv., prevb., prep.) "toward, with, under, on;" cognate with Gk. hypo, as above.

hypocycloid
  اوپاچرخ‌زاد   
upâcarxzâd

Fr.: hypocycloïde   

A curve generated by the trace of a fixed point on a small circle that rolls within a larger circle.

Hypocycloid, from → hypo- + → cycloid.

hypotenuse
  وتر   
vatar (#)

Fr.: hypoténuse   

In a → right triangle, the side opposite to the right angle.

L.L. hypotenusa, from Gk. hypoteinousa "stretching under" (the right angle), from hypoteinein, from → hypo- "under" + teinein "to stretch," → tension.

Vatar loan from Ar.

hypothermia
  اوپاگرمایی   
upâgarmâyi

Fr.: hypothermie   

The failure of the body to maintain adequate production of heat under conditions of extreme cold.

Hypothermia, from → hypo- + therm, from Gk. therme "heat," from PIE *ghwerm-/*ghworm- "warm;" cf. Pers. garm "warm;" L. fornax "an oven;" O.E. wearm "warm" + -ia a noun suffix.

Upâgarmâyi, from upâ-, → hypo-, + garmâ "heat, warmth," from Mid.Pers. garmâg; O.Pers./Av. garəma- "hot, warm;" cf. Skt. gharmah "heat;" Gk. thermos "warm;" L. formus "warm," fornax "oven;" P.Gmc. *warmaz; O.E. wearm; E. warm; O.H.G., Ger. warm; PIE *ghworm-/*ghwerm- "warm" + -yi noun suffix.

hypothesis
  انگاره، اوپاداین   
engâre (#), upâdâyan

Fr.: hypothèse   

A statement which is based on previous observations and which serves as a starting point for further investigation by which it may be proved or disproved. See also → theory, → model, → ad hoc hypothesis, → Kant-Laplace hypothesis, → arge number hypothesis, → nebular hypothesis, → null hypothesis, → statistical hypothesis, → statistical hypothesis testing.

Hypothesis, from M.Fr. hypothèse, from L.L. hypothesis, from Gk. hypothesis "base, basis of an argument, supposition," literally "a placing under," from → hypo- "under" + thesis "a placing, proposition," from root of tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" from PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do;" cf. Mod.Pers. dâdan "to give," Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give," O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" Skt. dadáti "he gives;" L. dare "to give, offer," facere "to do, to make;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do."

Engâré, from engâridan, engâštan "to → suppose."
Upâdâyan, from upâ-, → hypo-, + dâyan, → thesis.

hypothesize
  انگاره ساختن، اوپاداینیدن   
engâré sâxtan (#), upâdâyanidan

Fr.: faire une hypothèse   

To form a → hypothesis.

Hypothesize, from hypothes(is), → hypothesis + -ize a verb-forming suffix, from M.E. -isen, from O.Fr. -iser, from L.L. -izare, from Gk. -izein.

Engâré sâxtan, from engâré, → hypothesis + sâxtan, sâzidan "to adapt, adjust, be fit; to build, make, fashion," Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form," Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach."
Upâdâyanidan, infinitive from upâdâyan, → hypothesis.

hypothetical
  انگاره‌ای، اوپاداینی   
engâre-yi (#), upâdâyani

Fr.: hypothétique   

Of, pertaining to, or involving a → hypothesis; supposed.

hypothesis; → -al.

hysteresis
  پسماند   
pasmând (#)

Fr.: hystérésis   

The phenomenon exhibited by a body (especially a ferromagnetic or imperfectly elastic material) in reacting to changes in the forces, especially magnetic forces, affecting it.
In ferromagnetic materials, the lag in the change in the magnetic induction B behind the change in the intensity of the external magnetizing field, due to the dependence of B on its previous values (past history).

Hysteresis, from Gk. hysteresis "being behind or late," from hystere-, stem of hysterein "to come late, lag behind" + -sis a suffix forming abstract nouns of action.

Pasmând "lagging behind," from pas "behind" (Mid.Pers. pas "behind, before, after;" O.Pers. pasā "after;" Av. pasca "behind (of space); then, afterward (of time);" cf. Skt. pazca "behind, after, later," L. post "behind, in the rear; after, afterward;" O.C.S. po "behind, after;" Lith. pas "at, by;" PIE *pos-, *posko-) + mând stem of mândan "to remain; to be fatigued," mân "house, family" (Mid.pers. mândan "to remain, stay;" O.Pers. mān- "to remain, dwell;" Av. man- "to remain, dwell; to wait;" cf. Gk. menein "to remain;" L. manere "to stay, remain, abide," mansio "a staying, a remaining, night quarters, station" (Fr. maison, ménage; E. manor, mansion, permanent); PIE *men- "to remain, wait for."

hysteresis loop
  گردال ِ پسماند   
gerdâl-e pasmând

Fr.: cycle d'hystérésis   

A closed curve showing the change in magnetic induction of a ferromagnetic body to which an external field is applied as the intensity of this field is varied from +Hs to -Hs and back again, where Hs is the magnetic field intensity corresponding to saturation.

hysteresis; → loop.

hysteresis loss
  دست‌رفت ِ پسماندی   
dastraft-e pasmândi

Fr.: perte par hystérésis   

Dissipation of energy which occurs, due to magnetic hysteresis, when the magnetic material is subject to changes of magnetization.

hysteresis; → loss.

Iapetus
  یاپتوس   
Yâpetus

Fr.: Japet   

The seventeenth of Saturn's known satellites and the third largest. It is 1436 km across and revolves around Saturn at a mean distance of 3.5 million km with a period of 79 days. The most unique and perhaps most remarkable feature on Iapetus is a topographic ridge 13 km higher than the surrounding terrain, as discovered in the images obtained with Cassini spacecraft. The ridge extends at least 1300 km almost exactly parallel with Iapetus's equator.

Iapetus was one of the Titan gods, sons of Ouranos (Heaven) and Gaia (Earth). Discovered 25 October 1671 by Jean-Dominique Cassini.

IC 10
     
IC 10

Fr.: IC 10   

A small → dwarf irregular galaxy belonging to the → Local Group, which is located in the constellation → Cassiopeia. IC 10 is about 2.3 million light-years distant and about 5,000 light-years across. With an absolute B magnitude of -16.5, IC 10 has an integrated luminosity that is comparable to that of the → Small Magellanic Cloud, although it is considerably smaller. Its → metallicity is roughly a factor of 2 higher than that of the SMC and in the same proportion smaller than → LMC's. Compared to other Local Group galaxies, IC 10 has a large population of newly formed stars that are massive and intrinsically very bright, especially → Wolf-Rayet stars. Its W-R star density is larger than those of the LMC and SMC. Moreover, the relative number of known → WC to → WN type Wolf-Rayet stars is unusually high, which is unexpected for IC 10's metallicity. IC 10 is also known to be unusual in having → H I gas that extends about 7 times the optical dimensions of the galaxy. IC 10 is the nearest example of a → starburst galaxy. IC 10 was discovered by the American astronomer Lewis A. Swift (1820-1913) in 1887.

Number 10 in the → Index Catalogue.

IC 1613
     
IC 1613

Fr.: IC 1613   

A → dwarf irregular galaxy (also called Caldwell 51) located in the constellation → Cetus. IC 1613 is a member of the → Local Group of galaxies and has a → morphological classification of IBm (Irregular Barred, → Magellanic type galaxy). IC 1613 has a very → low surface brightness and a very low → dust content. It lies just over 2.38 ± 0.07 million → light-years away from us. IC 1613's distance is known to a remarkably high precision, partly due to the unusually low levels of dust lying both within the galaxy and along the line of sight from the → Milky Way. Moreover, the galaxy hosts a number of → Cepheid variables and → RR Lyrae variables which can be used to precisely determine distances. It was discovered by Max Wolf in 1906.

IC, short for → Index Catalogue.

IC 434
     
IC 434

Fr.: IC 434   

A bright → emission nebula running north to south near → Alnitak, the eastern star of → Orion's Belt. It is the bright background nebula against which the famous dark region called the → Horsehead Nebula stands out.

IC, → Index Catalogue.

ice
  یخ   
yax (#)

Fr.: glace   

1) The solid form of water; it is found in the atmosphere as snow crystals, hail, ice pellets, etc., and on the Earth's surface in forms such as frost, rime, glaze, glacier ice, etc.
2) The solid, frozen form of gases in cold astronomical objects.

Ice, from O.E. is "ice," from P.Gmc. *isa-; cf. O.N. iss, O.Fris. is, Du. ijs, Ger. Eis. Cognate with Pers. yax, as below.

Yax, from Av. aexa- "ice, frost," isav-, isu- "icy, chilly;" cf. Sarikoli (Pamir dialect) īš "cold;" P.Gmc. *isa-, as above.

ice accretion
  فربال ِ یخ   
farbâl-e yax

Fr.: accrétion de glace   

Meteo.: The process by which a layer of ice builds up on solid objects that are exposed to freezing precipitation or to supercooled fog or cloud droplets.

ice; → accretion.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>