An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
hydrostatic pressure
  فشار ِ هیدروتوانیک   
fešâr-e hidrotavânik

Fr.: pression hydrodynamique   

The term ρgz in the → Bernoulli equation. It is not pressure in a real sense, because its value depends on the reference level selected.

hydrostatic; → pressure.

hydrostatics
  هیدر-ایستاییک   
hidristâyik

Fr.: hydrostatique   

A branch of physics that deals with the characteristics of → fluids at rest and especially with the pressure in a fluid or exerted by a fluid on an immersed body.

hydro- + → statics.

hydrothermal
  هیدرو-گرمایی   
hidro-garmâyi

Fr.: hydrothermique   

Geology: Relating to or caused by high temperature underground water or gas heated by natural processes.

hydro-; → thermal.

hydroxide
  هیدروکسید   
hidroksid (#)

Fr.: hydroxide   

A diatomic ion containing one oxygen and one hydrogen atom with chemical formula OH-.

hydr-; → oxide.

hydroxyl group (OH)
  گروه ِ هیدروکسیل   
goruh-e hidroksil (#)

Fr.: groupe hydroxyle   

The univalent radical or group consisting of one hydrogen and one oxygen atom, forming a part of a molecule of a compound.

From → hydro- + ox(y)- a combining form meaning "sharp, acute, pointed, acid," used in the formation of compound words, from Gk, oxys "sharp, keen, acid" + -yl a suffix used in the names of chemical radicals, from Fr. -yle, from Gk. hyle "matter, substance;" → group.

Hydrus
  آبمار   
âbmâr (#)

Fr.: Hydre mâle   

The Male Water Snake. A minor constellation with three main stars, one of the 15 → circumpolar constellations in the southern hemisphere. It first appeared in Johann Bayer's Uranometria of 1603. It is often confused with → Hydra, the large constellation further north. It is also referred to as "male Hydra" or "little Hydra." Abbreviation: Hyi; genitive: Hydri.

From L., from Gk. hydros "water serpent."

Âbmâr "water snake," from âb "water" (Mid.Pers. âb "water;" O. Pers. ap- "water;" Av. ap- "water;" cf. Skt. áp- "water;" Hitt. happa- "water;" PIE āp-, ab- "water, river;" cf. Gk. Apidanos, proper noun, a river in Thessalia; L. amnis "stream, river" (from *abnis); O.Ir. ab "river," O.Prus. ape "stream," Lith. upé "stream;" Latv. upe "brook") + mâr "snake, serpent" (Mid.Pers. mâr "snake;" Av. mairya- "snake, serpent").

hygro-
  نم-   
nam- (#)

Fr.: hygro-   

A combining form meaning "wet, moist, moisture," used in the formation of compound words: → hygrogram; → hygrograph; → hygrometer .

Hygro-, from Gk, combining form of hygros "wet, moist."

Nam "humidity, moisture" + -negâšt, → -gram. The first component nam, from Mid.Pers. nam, namb "moisture;" Av. napta- "moist," nabās-câ- "cloud," nabah- "sky;" cf. Skt. nábhas- "moisture, cloud, mist;" Gk. nephos "cloud, mass of clouds," nephele "cloud;" L. nebula "mist," nimbus "rainstorm, rain cloud;" O.H.G. nebul; Ger. Nebel "fog;" O.E. nifol "dark;" from PIE *nebh- "cloud, vapor, fog, moist, sky."

hygrogram
  نم‌نگاشت   
namnegâšt (#)

Fr.: hygrogramme   

The graphical record made by a → hygrograph.

hygro- + → -gram.

hygrograph
  نم‌نگار   
namnegâš (#)

Fr.: hygrographe   

An instrument that records the hygrometer's measure of water vapor.

hygro- + → -graph.

hygrometer
  نم‌سنج   
namsanj (#)

Fr.: hygromètre   

An instrument that measures the relative humidity of the air.

hygro- + → -meter.

hylotrope
  ماده‌گرد   
mâdegard

Fr.: hylotrope   

A member of a class of equations of state used in some models concerned with the evolution of a hypothetical supermassive star. The supermassive star is assumed to consist of a → convective core, which obeys a → polytropic law, and an envelope, which contains most of the whole mass, and follows the hylotropic → equation of state. This equation is expressed by P = A ρ4/3Mα, where A is a constant, ρ the density, M the mass, and α an index. First introduced by Mitchell C. Begelman (2010, MNRAS 402, 673).

From → hylotropic, on the model of → polytrope.

hylotropic
  ماده‌گرد   
mâdegard

Fr.: hylotropique   

Physical chemistry: Describing a substance that is capable of undergoing a change in phase (as from a liquid to a gas), with no change in chemical composition. If the substance is hylotropic over a limited range of pressure and temperatures, it is a pure chemical substance. If it is hylotropic over all pressure and temperatures except the most extreme ones, it is a → chemical element. See also → hylotrope.

First suggested by Wilhelm Ostwald (1904, in Annalen der Naturphilosophie 3, 355), from Gk. hylo-, combining form of hyle "matter; wood," because of the dependence on the composition, + → -tropic.

Mâdegard, from mâdé, → matter, + gard, → -tropic.

hylotropy
  ماده‌گردی   
mâdegardi

Fr.: hylotropie   

Physical chemistry: The fact or condition of being → hylotropic.

hylotropic; → -tropy.

hyper-
  ۱) اَبَر-؛ ۲) هیپر-   
1) abar- (#); 2) hiper- (#)

Fr.: hyper-   

A prefix appearing in loanwords from Greek meaning:
1) "Over," like → super-, and sometimes implying:
2) "Excess higher than that denoted by super-;" e.g. → hypernova.

From Gk. hyper, preposition and adverb, "over, beyond, overmuch, above;" cognate with L. super- and Pers. abar-, as below.

1) Mid.Pers. abar; O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over."
2) hiper, loanword from Gk.

hyperbola
  هذلولی   
hozluli (#)

Fr.: hyperbole   

A two-branched open curve, a type of conic section, defined as the intersection between a right circular conical surface and a plane which cuts through both halves of the cone.

From Gk. hyperbole "excess, exaggeration" literally "a throwing beyond," from hyperballein "to throw over or beyond," from → hyper- "beyond" + bol-, nom. stem of ballein "to throw."

Hozluli, loanword from Ar.

hyperbolic
  هذلولی   
hozluli (#)

Fr.: hyperbolique   

Of or pertaining to a → hyperbola.

From hyperbol-, → hyperbola, + → -ic.

hyperbolic cosine
  کوسینوس ِ هذلولی   
kosinus-e hozluli

Fr.: cosinus hyperbolique   

A function, denoted cosh x, defined for all real values of x, by the relation: cosh x = (1/2) (ex + e-x).

hyperbolic; → cosine.

hyperbolic function
  کریایِ هذلولی   
karyâ-ye hozluli

Fr.: fonction hyperbolique   

Any of the six functions sinh, cosh, tanh, coth, csch, and sech that are related to the → hyperbola in the same way the → trigonometric functions relate to the → circle. Many of the formulae satisfied by the hyperbolic functions are similar to corresponding formulae for the trigonometric functions, except for + and - signs. For example: cosh2x - sinh2x = 1. See also: → hyperbolic cosine, → hyperbolic sine. Hyperbolic functions were first introduced by the Swiss mathematician Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777).

hyperbolic; → function.

hyperbolic orbit
  مدار ِ هذلولی   
madâr-e hozluli (#)

Fr.: orbite hyperbolique   

An orbit that is an open curve whose ends get wider apart at any rate between that of an ellipse and a straight line. Some comets' orbits become hyperbolic through the gravitational influence of a planet the comet passes near.

hyperbolic; → orbit.

hyperbolic sine
  سینوس ِ هذلولی   
sinus-e hozluli

Fr.: sinus hyperbolique   

A function, denoted cosh x, defined for all real values of x, by the relation: cosh x = (1/2) (ex - e-x).

hyperbolic; → sine.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>