An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
Russell-Saunders coupling
  جفتش ِ راسل-ساندرز، جفسری ِ ~   
jofteš-e Russell-Saunders, jafsari-ye ~

Fr.: couplage Russell-Saunders   

A coupling scheme of → electron configuration, used mainly for the lighter atoms with → atomic number less than 30. In an atom when changes in energy states are produced by the action of two or more electrons, the value of the total angular momentum of these electrons results from the coupling between the total → orbital angular momenta of the electrons and the total → spin angular momenta of the electrons. In this scheme the orbital angular momenta and spin angular momenta of electrons are added separately to give the total angular momentum L = Σi li and the total electron spin angular momentum S = Σi si. These are then added to give J = L + S. Also called → LS coupling. See also → jj coupling.

After Henry Norris Russell (1877-1957) and Frederick Albert Saunders (1875-1963), American astronomers (1925, ApJ 61, 38); → coupling.

Russell-Vogt theorem
  فربین ِ راسل-فوکت   
farbin-e Russell-Vogt

Fr.: théorème de Russell-Vogt   

A uniqueness theorem involving the equations of state of stellar structure. → Vogt-Russell theorem.

Named after the German astronomer Heinrich Vogt (1890-1968) and the American astronomer Henry Norris Russell (1877-1957); → theorem.

rust
  زنگ   
zang (#)

Fr.: rouille   

Hydrated oxide of iron, mainly Fe2O3H2O, formed on the surface of iron when it is exposed to moisture and air.

O.E. rust, related to rudu "redness," from P.Gmc. *rusta- (cf. O.H.G., Ger. rost, M.Du. ro(e)st), from PIE base *reudh- "red" (cf. Lith. rustas "brownish," rudeti "to rust;" L. robigo, O.C.S. ruzda "rust").

Zang "rust," variants žang, zangâr, of unknown origin.

ruthenium
  روتنیوم   
ruteniom (#)

Fr.: ruthénium   

A hard, silver gray metal belonging to the → platinum group of metals; symbol: Ru. It is found directly above osmium in Group 8 of the periodic table. → Atomic number 44, → atomic weight 101.07, → melting point about 2,310°C, → boiling point about 3,900°C, → specific gravity 12.41 at 20°C.

From L. ruthenia "Russia," because it was first found by the Russian chemist Gottfried Wilhelm Osann in 1828, despite not being recognized as an element. In 1844 the Russian chemist Karl Karlovich Klaus was able to isolate the ruthenium metal.

Rutherford atom
  اتم ِ راذرفرد   
atom-e Rutherford (#)

Fr.: atome de Rutherford   

A simple model assuming that the positive charge of the atom is not distributed uniformly throughout the atom (unlike the → Thomson atom), but is concentrated in a minute center or nucleus, and the negative charge is distributed over a sphere of radius comparable with the atomic radius.

After the British physicist and chesmist Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), who put forward this model in 1911; Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908; → atom.

rutherfordium
  راذرفردیوم   
râzerfordiom (#)

Fr.: rutherfordium   

An artificially produced radioactive chemical element; symbol Rf. Atomic number 104; mass number of most stable isotope 261; melting point, boiling point, and specific gravity unknown. Rutherfordium was discovered in 1964 by a team of scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna in Russia who named the element kurchatovium. The Russian scientists were unable to duplicate their results and therefore lost credit to a team of scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, who identified the element. The scientists in California were successful in isolating the element after irradiating 249Cf with 12C.

Named after the British physicist and chemist Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), → Rutherford atom.

rydberg
  رودبَری   
rydberg (#)

Fr.: rydberg   

A unit of energy used in atomic physics, equal to about 13.6 electron-volts, the ionization potential of hydrogen.

In honor of the Swedish physicist Johannes Robert Rydberg (1854-1919), who did important contributions on spectroscopy, and in particular found a relatively simple expression relating the various lines in the spectra of chemical elements (1890).

Rydberg constant
  پایای ِ رودبَری   
pâyâ-ye Rydberg (#)

Fr.: constante de Rydberg   

A fundamental constant of atomic physics appearing in the → Rydberg formula. The Rydberg constant for hydrogen is 109,739 cm-1.

rydberg; → constant.

Rydberg correction
  ارشایش ِ رودبَری   
aršâyeš-e Rydberg

Fr.: correction de Rydberg   

A term inserted into a formula for the energy of a single electron in the outermost shell of an atom to take into account the failure of the inner electron shells to screen the nuclear charge completely.

rydberg; → correction.

Rydberg formula
  هموگش ِ رودبَری   
hamugeš-e Rydberg

Fr.: formule de Rydberg   

A formula, used in atomic physics, which describes the wavelengths or frequencies of light in various series of related spectral lines, such as those emitted by hydrogen atoms.

rydberg; → formula.

S Andromedae
   S آندرومدا   
S Andromedâ

Fr.: S Andromedae   

The only supernova seen to date in the Andromeda galaxy and the first supernova observed beyond our own Galaxy. It was recorded on Aug. 20, 1885, by Ernst Hartwig (1851-1923) at Dorpat Observatory (Tartu) in Estonia and independently by other astronomers. S Andromedae reached magnitude 6 between Aug. 17 and 20, and had faded to magnitude 16 by February 1890. It is now believed that S Andromedae was a Type Ia supernova. Also known as SN 1885A.

S, from the second variable star to be discovered in constellation → Andromeda

S asteroid
  سیارک ِ S   
sayyârak-e S

Fr.: astéroïde S   

A moderately bright type of asteroids (albedo 0.10 to 0.22) consisting mainly of iron- and magnesium-silicates such as olivine and pyroxene. They are dominant in the inner main belt within 2.2 AU, common in the central belt within about 3 AU, but become rare further out. The largest is 15 Eunomia (about 330 km in its largest dimension).

S stands for silicaceous, → silicate; → asteroid.

S cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ S   
xuše-ye S

Fr.: amas S   

A → star cluster situated within an arcsecond, or 0.04 pc, from the → Galactic Center, in the vicinity of the → supermassive black hole Sgr A*. The cluster members are about 40 → main sequence → B-type stars with relatively high orbital → eccentricities (0.3 ≤ e&le 0.95). The most famous member of the S cluster is S2 because of its brightness and its fast orbital motion near Sgr A*. Same as Same as the Sgr A* cluster and S stars. See also other → Galactic center clusters (Figer et al. 2002, ApJ 581, 258; and 1999, ApJ 525, 750).

S, because of proximity to → Sgr A*; → cluster.

S Doradus star
  ستاره‌ی S ِ زرین ماهی   
setâre-ye S Zarrin-mâhi

Fr.: étoiles S Doradus   

A type of massive, → blue supergiant, → variable star, also known as a → Hubble-Sandage variable or a → Luminous Blue Variable (LBV). S Doradus stars are the most luminous stars in the Galaxy and are easily identified in other nearby galaxies. They are named after the prototype, S Doradus, in the → Large Magellanic Cloud.

Dorado; → star.

S star
  ستاره‌ی ِ S   
setâre-ye S

Fr.: étoile de type S   

A → red giant of → spectral type S whose spectrum is dominated by → molecular bands arising from → zirconium → oxide (ZrO). S stars also have strong → cyanogen bands and contain spectral lines of → lithium and → technetium. Almost all S stars are → long-period variables.

S, letter of alphabet; → star.

s-process
  فراروند ِ s   
farâravand-e s

Fr.: processus s   

A → nucleosynthesis process by which → chemical elements heavier than → copper are formed through a slow flux of → neutrons absorbed by atomic nuclei (→ neutron-capture element). The → capture of neutrons occurs on time scales that are long enough to enable unstable nuclei to decay via the emission of a → beta particle before absorbing another neutron. Prominent s-process elements include → barium, → zirconium, and → yttrium. See also: → r-process.

s stands for → slow; → process.

S-type asteroid
  سیارک ِ گونه‌ی ِ S   
sayârak-e gune-ye S

Fr.: astéroïde de type S   

A type of → asteroid containing → pyroxene and → olivine silicates, probably mixed with metallic iron, similar to → stony meteorites. S-type asteroids show high albedo of 0.10-0.22. They include about 17% of known asteroids and occupy the inner → asteroid belt.

S for → stone; → type; → asteroid.

S-type star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گونه‌ی ِ S   
setâre-ye gune-ye S

Fr.: étoile de type S   

Same as → S star.

S, letter of alphabet; → type; → star.

S-wave
  موج ِ S   
mowj-e S

Fr.: onde S   

shear wave.

S, referring to → shear; → wave.

S5-HVS1
   S5-HVS1   
S5-HVS1

Fr.: S5-HVS1   

The fastest → main sequence  → hypervelocity star (HVS) with a → heliocentric  → radial velocity of 1017 ±2.7 km s-1. The star S5-HVS1 is an → A-type with a → luminosity of ~ 2.35 Msun located at a distance of ~ 9 kpc from the Sun. The current 3D velocity of the star in the Galactic frame is 1755 ± 50 km s-1. When integrated backwards in time, the orbit of the star points unambiguously to the → Galactic Center, implying that S5-HVS1 was kicked away from → Sgr A* with a velocity of ~ 1800 km s-1 and travelled for 4.8 Myr to its current location. This is so far the only HVS confidently associated with the Galactic Center. The ejection trajectory and transit time of S5-HVS1 coincide with the orbital plane and age of the annular disk of young stars at the Galactic Centre, and thus may be linked to its formation. With the S5-HVS1 ejection velocity being almost twice the velocity of other hypervelocity stars previously associated with the Galactic Center, the question arises whether they have been generated by the same mechanism or whether the ejection velocity distribution has been constant over time (Koposov, S.E., et al., 2019, arXiv:1907.11725).

S5, or S5, short for Southern Stellar Stream Spectroscopic Survey; HVS, → hypervelocity star (HVS).

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>