An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
ring system
  راژمان ِ حلقه‌ای   
râžmân-e halqe-yi

Fr.: système d'anneaux   

planetary ring system.

ring; → system.

ringdown
     

Fr.: desexcitation finale   

The last stage of → merger between two → black holes undergoing → inspiral. At the end of the evolution of a → binary black hole system, the black holes get close enough to → merge together into a single, larger black hole (→ black hole merger). The resulting black hole is at first distorted and asymmetric, but in the ringdown process the black hole's vibrations decay due to → gravitational radiation leaving finally a quiescent, spinning black hole.

M.E. ring, from O.E. hringan; akin to O.Norse hringja "to ring;" → down.

ringlet
  حلقک   
halqak

Fr.: annelet   

1) A small ring.
2) Any of the thin or narrow rings that compose the major → Saturn's rings.

ring; → -let.

ripple
  چیناو   
cinâv

Fr.: ondulation, ride   

A wave on a fluid surface, of sufficiently short wavelength, in which gravity is the dominant influence.

Of unknown origin, perhaps frequentative of rip (v.) "to tear apart."

Cinâv, literally "water wrinkle," from cin "fold, plait, wrinkle" + âv, variant of âb, → water.

rise
  ۱) بر‌آمدن؛ ۲) بر‌آمد   
1) barâmadan (#); 2) barâmad (#)

Fr.: 1) se lever; 2) lever   

1) Of a heavenly body, to ascend above the horizon. → set.
2) An act or instance of rising; appearance above the horizon. → moonrise, → sunrise

M.E. risen (v.); O.E. risan; cf. O.N. risa, Goth. urreisan "to rise," O.H.G. risan "to rise, flow," Ger. reisen "to travel."

Barâmadan, from bar- "up; upon; on; in; into; at; forth; with; near; before; according to" (Mid.Pers. abar; O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over") + âmadan "to come, to occur, to become" (Mid.Pers. âmatan; O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go," Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes;" Proto-Iranian *āgmatani; Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come").

rising
  بر‌آمد، بر‌آیش   
barâmad (#), barâyeš (#)

Fr.: lever   

The act of rising; the appearance of a celestial body above the horizon. Opposite of → setting.

Verbal noun of → rise.

risk
  ریسک   
risk (#)

Fr.: risque   

Exposure to the chance of injury or loss; a hazard or dangerous chance (Dictionary.com).

From Fr. risque, from It. risco, riscio (modern rischio), from riscare "to run into danger," of uncertain origin.

Risk, loan from Fr.

Ritchey-Chretien telescope
  تلسکوپ ِ ریچی-کرتین، دوربین ِ ~   
teleskop-e Ritchey-Chrétien, durbin-e ~

Fr.: télescope Ritchey-Chrétien   

A type of → Cassegrain telescope in which the → primary mirror is a → hyperboloid. It is designed to eliminate → coma and → spherical aberration, thus providing a relatively large field of view as compared to a more conventional configuration.

Named after the American astronomer George Ritchey (1864-1945) and the French optician Henri Chrétien (1879-1956); → telescope.

Ritz combination principle
  پروز ِ میازش ِ ریتز   
parvaz-e miyâzeš-e Ritz

Fr.: principe de combinaison de Ritz   

An empirical rule discovered before the advent of quantum mechanics which states that it is possible to find pairs of spectral lines, which have the property that the sum of their wavenumbers is also an observed spectral line.

Named after Walther Ritz (1878-1909), a Swiss theoretical physicist; → combination; → principle.

rival
  هماورد   
hamâvard (#)

Fr.: rival   

1) A person who is competing for the same object or goal as another, or who tries to equal or outdo another; competitor.
2) A person or thing that is in a position to dispute another's preeminence or superiority (Dictionary.com).

From L. rivalis "a rival, adversary; neighbor," originally, "one who uses a stream in common with another," from riv(us) "stream, brook," + -alis, → -al.

Hamâvard "a rival; an adversary in a combat," from ham- "together," → com-, + âvard "battle, struggle," variants nabard, nibard, nâvard "fight, struggle, war," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *part- "to fight, to struggle."

rivalry
  هماوردی   
hamâvardi (#)

Fr.: rivalité   

1) The action, position, or relation of a rival or rivals; competition.
2) An instance of this (Dictionary.com).

Noun from → rival.

river
  رود   
rud (#)

Fr.: rivière   

A large natural stream of water flowing in a definite course.

M.E., from O.Fr. rivere, riviere, from V.L. *riparia "riverbank, seashore, river," noun use of feminine of L. riparius "of a riverbank."

Rud, from Mid.Pers. rôd "river," O.Pers. rautah- "river;" cf. Skt. srotas- "river," sru- "to flow;" Pali sota- "stream, flood;" Gk. rhoos "a stream, a flowing," from rhein "to flow;" O.E. stream; Ger. Strom; PIE base *sreu- "to flow."

roAp star
  ستاره‌ی Apی ِ تند نونده   
setâre-ye Ap-ye tond navandé

Fr.: étoile Ap à oscillation rapide   

Same as → rapidly oscillating Ap star

rapidly oscillating Ap star

Robertson-Walker metric
  متریک ِ روبرتسون-واکر   
metrik-e Robertson-Walker (#)

Fr.: métrique de Robertson-Walker   

The mathematical description of the interval (→ space-time separation) between → events ("points" in space-time) in a → homogeneous and → isotropic → Universe. It results from an exact solution of → Einstein's field equations of → general relativity. Under the assumptions, the Robertson-Walker interval is expressed by:
ds2 = c2dt2 - R2(t) [dr2/(1 - kr2) + r22 + r2sin2θ dθ2)].
Same as Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric. Compare → Minkowski metric.

Named after Howard Percy Robertson (1903-1961), American mathematician and physicist, and Arthur Geoffrey Walker (1909-2001), British mathematician and physicist, for their contributions to physics and physical cosmology; → metric.

robot
  روبوت   
robot (#)

Fr.: robot   

A machine that does mechanical, routine tasks on command.

From Czech, coined by Karel Čapek in the play R.U.R. (1920), from the base robot-, as in robota "compulsory labor," robotník "peasant owing such labor," from robotiti "to work, drudge."

Robot, loan from E., as above.

robust
  تناور   
tanâvar (#)

Fr.: robuste   

The quality of a model when it is insensitive to small discrepancies in assumptions.

From L. robustus "strong and hardy," literally "as strong as oak," from robur, robus "hard timber, strength," also "a special kind of oak," named for its reddish heartwood, from L. ruber, → red.

Tanâvar "robust, stout, corpulent," from tan "corpus, body," → if and only if + âvar contraction of âvarandé agent noun of âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce," → collect.

Roche limit
  حد ِ رُش   
hadd-e Roche

Fr.: rayon de Roche   

The smallest distance at which a → satellite under the influence of its own → gravitation and that of a central mass about which it is describing a → Keplerian orbit can be in equilibrium. This does not, however, apply to a body held together by the stronger forces between atoms and molecules. At a lesser distance the → tidal forces of the → primary body would break up the → secondary body. The Roche limit is given by the formula d = 1.26 RMMm)1/3, where RM is the radius of the → primary body, ρM is the → density of the primary, and ρm is the density of the secondary body. This formula can also be expressed as: d = 1.26 Rm (MM/Mm)1/3, where Rm is the radius of the secondary. As an example, for the Earth-Moon system, where RM = 6,378 km, ρM = 5.5 g cm-3, and ρm = 2.5 g cm-3 is 1.68 Earth radii.

Named after Edouard Albert Roche (1820-1883), the French astronomer who first calculated this theoretical limit in 1848; → limit.

Roche lobe
  لپ ِ رُش   
lap-e Roche

Fr.: lobe de Roche   

The region around a star in a → binary system within which orbiting material is gravitationally bound to that star. The point at which the Roche lobes of the two stars touch is called the → inner Lagrangian point. → equipotential surface.

Roche limit; → lobe.

Roche lobe overflow (RLOF)
  سرریز ِ لپ ِ رُش   
sarriz-e lap-e Roche

Fr.: débordement du lobe de Roche   

A process in a → binary system when a star fills its → Roche lobe, often by becoming a → giant or → supergiant during the later stages of → stellar evolution. When the star expands, any material that passes beyond the Roche lobe will flow onto the binary → companion, often by way of an → accretion disk. This occurs through the → inner Lagrangian point where the gravity of the two stars cancels. The RLOF is responsible for a number of phenomena including → cataclysmic variables, → Type Ia supernovae, and many → X-ray binary systems.

Roche lobe; → overflow.

rock
  برد، سنگ   
bard (#), sang (#)

Fr.: roche   

1) A large mass of → stone forming a hill, cliff, promontory, or the like.
2) Geology: Mineral matter of variable composition, consolidated or unconsolidated, assembled in masses or considerable quantities in nature, as by the action of heat or water (Dictionary.com).

M.E. rokk(e), from O.Fr. ro(c)que, roche (cf. Sp., Provençal roca, It. rocca, M.L. rocca, V.L. *rocca, of uncertain origin.

Bard (Dehxodâ) "rock, stone," used in a large part of Western Iran, specifically in Lori and Kurd., related to Kurd. pal "rock, stone;" cf. Gk. poros "rock." Sang, → stone.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>