An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara arc Ari arr Asi ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal ban bar bar bea Bel Bes bia Big bin bin bip Bla bla bli blu Boh Bon bos Bou bra bri bro bur cal cal can Cap car Car cat Cau cea Cen cen cha Cha cha che chi chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop Cor CoR cor cos cos Cou cou CP- cre cri cro cub cur cya Cyg dan dar dau de- deb dec dec dee def deg del den den dep des deu dew dia dif dif dih dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu doc dop dou DQ dry dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hul Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf inh inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel Mer Mes met met met mic mid Mil min mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul muo mys nan nat Nav nec nep neu new New NGC Noa nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nyc obj obs obs oce odd OH Omi Oor ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par Par Par par pas pea Pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad raf ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret rev ric rig rin roc ROS rot Rox rus Sad sal sat sca sca Sch sci scy sec sec see sel sem sen Ser sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sle SMA SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou Sou spa Sp spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str Sty sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru tum tur TY Typ ult una und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel ytt zer zon > >>

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scientific notation
  نمادگان ِ دانشی، ~ دانشیک   
namâdgân-e dâneši, ~ dânešik

Fr.: notation scientifique   

A compact format for writing very large or very small numbers. Numbers are made up of three parts: the coefficient, the base and the exponent. For example 3.58 x 104 is the scientific notation for 35,800.

scientific; → notation.

scientificity
  دانشیگی   
dânešigi

Fr.: scientificité   

The quality of the practices and theories that aim at establishing reproducible regularities in phenomena by using experimental method and providing a clearly formulated description.

scientific + → -ity.

scientist
  دانشمند   
dânešmand (#)

Fr.: scientifique   

An expert in science, especially one of the physical or natural sciences. → scholar.

From → science + -ist an agent noun suffix.

Dânešmand, from dâneš, → science, + -mand suffix of possession.

scintillation
  سوسو   
susu (#)

Fr.: scintillation   

1) Rapid variation in the brightness, wavelength, and mean position of stars caused by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere.
2) In radio astronomy, rapid fluctuations in the detected intensity of radiation from compact cosmic radio sources due to disturbances in ionized gas through which the radiation has passed. → interstellar scintillation.

From L. scintillationem (nominative scintillatio), from scintillatus p.p. of scintillare "to send out sparks, to flash," from scintilla "particle of fire, spark."

Susu, from su "light," related to suz "burning," present stem of suxtan; Mid.Pers. sôxtan, sôzidan "to burn," Av. base saoc- "to burn, inflame" sūcā- "brilliance," upa.suxta- "inflamed;" cf. Skt. śoc- "to light, glow, burn," śocati "burns," śoka- "light, flame;" PIE base *(s)keuk- "to shine."

scintillation counter
  سوسو شمار   
susu šomâr

Fr.: compteur à scintillation   

A device for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by means of flashes produced when the radiation particles strike a sensitive layer of phosphor.

scintillation; → counter.

scleronomous
  سختداتیک   
saxtdâtik

Fr.: scléronome   

Relating to a constraint or system that does not contain time explicitly. For example, a pendulum with an inextensible string of length l0 is described by the equation: x2 + y2 = l02 is both → holonomic and scleronomous.

From Gk. sclero-, from skleros "hard" + -nomous, → -nomy.

Saxtdâtik, from saxt, → hard, + dâtik, → -nomy.

Scorpius
  کژدُم   
Každom (#)

Fr.: Scorpion   

The Scorpion. A large and impressive constellation in the → Zodiac, which lies between → Libra to the west and → Sagittarius to the east. Scorpius is located in the southern hemisphere near the center of the Milky Way at approximately 17h right ascension, -40° declination. The bright, red star → Antares marks the heart of the scorpion. The constellation contains deep sky objects such as the open clusters M6 and M7, and the globular clusters M4 and M80. Also in the southern end of the constellation there is the open star cluster NGC 6231. Abbreviation: Sco; genitive: Scorpii.

M.E., from O.Fr. scorpion, from L. scorpionem (nominative scorpio), from Gk. skorpios "a scorpion," from PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut," → shear. According to Gk. mythology, the constellation represents a giant scorpion sent forth by the earth-goddess Gaia to kill the giant Orion when he threatened to slay all the beasts of the earth. Orion and the Scorpion were afterward placed amongst the stars as a pair of constellations. The two opponents are never seen in the sky at the same time, for one constellation sets as the other rises. The scorpion's claws were originally formed by Libra.

Každom "scorpion," variants kajdom, gaždom literally "crooked tail," from Mid.Pers. gazdum literally "stinging tail," from gaz present stem of gazidan (also Mod.Pers.) "to sting, to bite" + dum, dumb (Mod.Pers. dom, domb) "tail;" Av. duma- "tail."

Scorpius X-1
  کژدم X-1   
Každom X-1

Fr.: Scorpius X-1   

The first and the brightest X-ray source in the sky, after the Sun, discovered in 1962. Scorpius X-1 is a low-mass → X-ray binary consisting of a compact object like a → neutron star or a → black hole, and a low-mass stellar companion. The compact object has a mass of 1.4 → solar masses and the companion 0.42 solar masses. The orbital period is 18.9 hours, and the system lies at a distance of about 9,000 → light-years. The X-rays come from → accretion, where material from the companion overflows its → Roche lobe and spirals down onto the compact object. The luminosity results from the transformation of the falling material's → gravitational potential energy to heat by → viscosity in the → accretion disk.

Named such by the discoverers (Giacconi et al. 1962), because it was the first extrasolar → X-ray source of the sky detected in the constellation → Scorpius.

Scorpius-Centaurus association
  آهزش ِ کژدم-کنتاؤروس   
âhazeš-e Každom-Kentawros

Fr.: association Scorpius-Centaurus   

The nearest → OB association to the Sun. It contains several hundred stars, mostly → B stars which concentrate in the three subgroups: Upper Scorpius, Upper Centaurus Lupus, and Lower Centaurus Crux. Upper Scorpius is the youngest subgroup, Upper Centaurus Lupus the oldest subgroup of the association. Isochrone fitting to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram indicates that the star formation occurred some 5-20 Myr ago. Based on data from the → Hipparcos catalog, it turns out that the Sco-Cen association lies at a distance of 118-145 → parsecs, with the exact value depending on the subgroup of the association. The Sco-Cen association is probably a member of the → Gould Belt (Preibisch & Mamajek, 2008, astro-ph/0809.0407).

Scorpius; → Centaurus; → association.

scotopic vision
  دید ِ تاریکی   
did-e târiki

Fr.: vision scotopique   

Vision that occurs when the eye is dark-adapted. In scotopic vision, the level of luminance is so low that the retinal cones are not stimulated, and there is no color vision. Same as scotopia; → dark adaptation.

Scotopic, from L. Gk. skoto- combining form of skotos "darkness" + -opia akin to ope "view, look," ops "eye, face;" → vision.

Did, → vision; târiki noun from târik "dark," Mid.Pers. târig "dark," târ "darkness," Av. taθra- "darkness," taθrya- "dark," cf. Skt. támisrâ- "darkness, dark night," L. tenebrae "darkness," Hittite taš(u)uant- "blind," O.H.G. demar "twilight."

screen
  پرده   
pardé (#)

Fr.: écran   

A large, usually flat surface onto which an image is projected for viewing.
The portion of a computer terminal or monitor upon which information is displayed.

M.E. screne; O.Fr. escren "a screen against heat," from M.Du. scherm "screen, cover," or Frank. *skrank "barrier;" cf. O.H.G. skirm, skerm "protection," scrank "barrier;" Ger. Schrank "cupboard."

Pardé, from Mid.Pers. pardag "curtain, veil;" maybe cognate with Skt. patta- "cloth, an upper garment," pattaka- "cloth, girdle, strip of cloth."

screen font
  ریختار ِ پرده   
rixtâr-e pardé

Fr.: fonte d'écran   

A character used for on-screen → display. See also → printer font.

screen; → font.

screened Coulomb interaction
  اندرژیرش ِ باپرده‌ی ِ کولن   
andaržireš-e bâparde-ye Coulomb

Fr.: interaction de Coulomb écrantée   

The → Coulomb interaction reduced owing to the presence of other electrons. See → shielding effect.

screen; → coulomb; → interaction.

screening effect
  اسکر ِ پرده   
oskar-e pardé

Fr.: effet d'écran   

Same as → shielding effect.

screen; → effect.

screw
  پیچ   
pic (#)

Fr.: vis   

A piece of metal, consisting of a threaded and usually tapered shank that has a slotted head by which it is turned into something in order to fasten things together.

M.E. scrwe, screw, from M.Fr. escroue "nut, cylindrical socket," of uncertain origin.

Pic "screw," present stem of picidan "to twist, entwine, coil."

Sculptor
  پیکرتراش   
Peykartarâš (#)

Fr.: Sculpteur   

A minor and faint → constellation in the southern sky at 0h 30m → right ascension, 33° south → declination. Its brightest star is variable with a mean magnitude of only 4.31. Sculptor contains the south Galactic pole. It also contains the → Sculptor Dwarf, which is a member of the → Local Group. Abbreviation: Scl; Genitive: Sculptoris.

Sculptor was introduced by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762). He originally named it Apparatus Sculptoris "the sculptor's studio," but the name was later shortened. From L. sculp(ere) "to carve" + a suffix forming personal agent nouns.

Peykartarâš, from peykar "form, figure, body" (from Mid.Pers. pahikar "picture, image;" from O.Pers. patikara- "picture, (sculpted) likeness," from patiy "against" (Av. paiti; Skt. prati; Gk. poti/proti + kara- "doer, maker," from kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kar-; Skt. kr-; cf. Skt. pratikrti- "an image, likeness, model; counterpart") + tarâš "cutter," from tarâšidan "to cut, hew; scape; shave;" (Mid.Pers. tâšitan "to cut, cleave; create by putting together different elements;" Av. taš- "to cut off, fashion, shape, create," taša- "axe" (Mod.Pers. taš tišé "axe"), tašan- "creator;" cf. Skt. taks- "to fom by cutting, tool, hammer, form," taksan- "wood-cutter, carpenter;" Gk. tekton "carpenter," tekhne "art, skill, craft, method, system;" L. textere "to weave;" PIE *teks- "to fashion").

Sculptor Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy
  کهکشان ِ کوتوله‌ی ِ بیضی‌گون ِ پیکرتراش   
kahkešân-e kutule-ye beyzigun-e Peykartarâš

Fr.: galaxie naine elliptique du Sculpteur   

A → dwarf elliptical galaxy that is a satellite of our → Milky Way. It lies about 285,000 → light-years away in the constellation → Sculptor, and has an → absolute magnitude of -11.28 and a mass of about 3 million → solar masses. The Sculptor Dwarf is a → metal-deficient galaxy containing only 4 percent of the oxygen and carbon elements in our own Galaxy.

Sculptor; → dwarf; → elliptical; → galaxy.

Sculptor Group
  گروه ِ پیکرتراش   
goruh-e Peykartarâš

Fr.: groupe du Sculpteur   

The nearest group of galaxies to our → Local Group, lying near the south Galactic pole at about 10 million → light-years distance. The Sculptor Group is dominated by five galaxies, four spiral (NGC 247, 253, 300, and 7793) and one irregular (NGC 55). The brightest of the five is NGC 253. The nearest galaxy in this group is NGC 55 which at a distance of 5 million light-years lies on the border of the Local Group.

Sculptor; → group.

Scutum
  سپر   
Separ (#)

Fr.: Ecu de Sobieski   

The Shield. A small constellation in the southern Milky Way, at 18h 40m right ascension, 10° south declination. Its brightest star has a visual magnitude of 3.85. Scutum contains several open clusters, as well as a globular cluster and a planetary nebula. The two best known deep sky objects in Scutum are M11 (NGC 6705), a dense open cluster, and M26, another open cluster also known as NGC 6694. The globular cluster NGC 6712 and the planetary nebula IC 1295 can be found in the eastern part of the constellation. Abbreviation: Sct; Genitive: Scuti.

Scutum was created by Johannes Hevelius in 1683, who originally named it L. Scutum Sobiescianum "the shield of Sobieski" to commemorate the victory of the Polish forces led by King John III Sobieski in the Battle of Vienna, and thus refers to Sobieski's Janina Coat of Arms. Later, the name was shortened to Scutum "shield."

Separ "shield," from Mid.Pers. spar "shield;" cf. Skt. phalaka- "board, lath, leaf, shield," phálati "(he) splits;" Gk. aspalon "skin, hide," spolas "flayed skin," sphalassein "to cleave, to disrupt;" O.H.G. spaltan "to split;" Goth. spilda "board;" PIE base *(s)p(h)el- "to split, to break off."

Scutum-Crux Arm
  بازوی ِ سپر-چلیپا   
bâzu-ye Separ-Calipâ

Fr.: bras Écu-Croix   

A spiral arm of our Galaxy located between the Sagittarius Arm and the Norma Arm, though it is rather less prominent than either of these two better defined spiral arms. It originates relatively close to the Sun's present position in the Galaxy, and follows a sweeping arc of about 80,000 light years to the opposite side of the Galactic disk.

Scutum; → Crux; → arm.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara arc Ari arr Asi ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal ban bar bar bea Bel Bes bia Big bin bin bip Bla bla bli blu Boh Bon bos Bou bra bri bro bur cal cal can Cap car Car cat Cau cea Cen cen cha Cha cha che chi chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop Cor CoR cor cos cos Cou cou CP- cre cri cro cub cur cya Cyg dan dar dau de- deb dec dec dee def deg del den den dep des deu dew dia dif dif dih dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu doc dop dou DQ dry dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hul Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf inh inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel Mer Mes met met met mic mid Mil min mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul muo mys nan nat Nav nec nep neu new New NGC Noa nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nyc obj obs obs oce odd OH Omi Oor ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par Par Par par pas pea Pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad raf ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret rev ric rig rin roc ROS rot Rox rus Sad sal sat sca sca Sch sci scy sec sec see sel sem sen Ser sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sle SMA SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou Sou spa Sp spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str Sty sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru tum tur TY Typ ult una und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel ytt zer zon > >>