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Shapiro time delay
Fr.: effet Shapiro
A → general relativity effect whereby an → electromagnetic signal passing near a massive object takes, due to the curved → space-time, a slightly longer time to travel to a target than it would if the mass of the object were not present. The Shapiro time delay is one of the four classic solar system tests of general relativity. Radar reflections from → Mercury and → Mars are consistent with general relativity to an accuracy of about 5%. The Shapiro time delay is a significant contributor in → gravitational lens systems.
Fr.: concentration de Shapley
Same as the → Shapley supercluster.
Fr.: superamas de Shapley
The richest → supercluster of galaxies in the nearby → Universe at a → redshift going from z ~0.03 to z ~0.05 (680 million → light-years), and extending over several square degrees on the plane of the sky. It lies behind the → Centaurus supercluster. Also called the Shapley concentration, it is made up of 25 → galaxy clusters with a total mass of about 1016→ solar masses. At the core of the Shapley supercluster is a remarkable complex formed by several rich clusters of galaxies from the → Abell catalog; the central and most massive of them is A3558.
Fr.: Bras de Shapley
A large cloud of faint stars extending eastward from the → Small Magellanic Cloud to the → Large Magellanic Cloud. The wing is in fact the tail of a much larger → neutral hydrogen structure linking the SMC to the LMC. Models and observations suggest that the structure known as the → Magellanic Stream results from the Clouds' interaction with each other and the Milky Way. Several works support the finding that the SMC wing is pointing toward the LMC, and is therefore closer to us than the SMC bar.
Named after the American astronomer Harlow Shapley (1885-1972), who discovered this structure (1940, Harvard Bull., 914, 8); → wing.
Fr.: catalogue de Shapely-Ames
A catalog of 1,249 galaxies, brighter than the 13th magnitude, published in 1932. A revised version was published by A.R. Sandage and G. A. Tammann in 1981.
By the American astronomer Harlow Shapley (1885-1972) and the American woman astronomer Adelaide Ames (1900-1932), who died in a drowning accident; → catalog.
Fr.: bâton de Sharafeddin
1) baš; 2) bašidan
Fr.: 1) part; 2) partager
1a) The full or proper portion or part allotted or belonging to or
contributed or owed by an individual or group.
M.E., from O.E. scearu "a cutting, shearing; a part or division," related to sceran "to cut;" O.H.G. scara "troop, share of forced labor," Ger. Schar "troop, band," properly "a part of an army," O.N. skör "rim;" from PIE root *(s)ker- "to cut."
1) tiz; 2) tig
Fr.: 1) tranchant, pointu; 2) net
1) Having a thin cutting edge or a fine point.
M.E.; O.E. scearp "cutting, keen, sharp;" cf. Du. scherp, Ger. scharf "sharp;" PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut."
Tiz "sharp," variants tež, tej, tij, tiq, tik, tig; Mid.Pers. tigr, têz, têž "sharp;" O.Pers. tigra- "pointed," tigra.xauda- "pointed helmet (epithet of Scythians);" Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow," tiži.arštay- "with the pointed spear;" cf. Skt. tikta- "sharp, pungent, bitter," tejas- "sharpness, edge, point or top of a flame;" PIE base *st(e)ig- "to stick; pointed." Cognates in other IE languages: Gk. stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument;" L. in-stigare "to goad;" O.H.G. stehhan; Ger. stechen "to stab, prick;" Du. stecken; O.E. sticca "rod, twig, spoon;" E. stick.
vine-ye tig, tasvir-e ~
Fr.: image nette
An image with clear and distinct details. Opposite of → blurred image.
1) tiz kardan; 2) tigidan
Fr.: 1) aiguiser; 2) rendre plus net
Verbal form of → sharp.
Tigidan "to sharpen," verbal form of tig→ sharp.
Fr.: catalogue de Sharpless
A list of 313 individual → H II regions in the → northern → Milky Way (north of declination -27°). It includes several → planetary nebulae, → supernova remnants, and → reflection nebulae. The first edition (Sh-1) was published in 1953 with 142 objects and second and final version (Sh-2) was published in 1959. The catalog categorizes the H II regions in terms of several parameters, such as diameter, form (circular, elliptical, irregular), structure (amorphous/filamentary), brightness, and number of associated stars, which are further discussed in terms of their spectral classes.
Stewart Sharpless (1959) A Catalogue of H II Regions, ApJ Suppl. 4, 257; → catalog.
Shaula (Lambda Scorpii)
Fr.: Shaula, λ Scorpii
The second brightest star in the constellation → Scorpius, lying at a distance of 570 → light-years. With → Lesath (Upsilon Scorpii) both stars make up the Scorpion's stinger. Shaula is a → multiple star with three visible → components. The first one, Lambda Scorpii A, is classified as a B2 IV → subgiant. The 15th magnitude Lambda Scorpii B has a separation of 42 arcseconds from component A, while the 12th magnitude Lambda Scorpii C is 95 arcseconds from A. It is not known whether or not these components are physically associated with component A. The component A is actually a → triple system consisting of two → B-type stars and a → pre-main sequence star.
Shaula, from Ar. ash-shaulah (
Fr.: étoile SHB
Same as → supra-horizontal branch star.
1) karn; 2) karnidan
Fr.: 1) cisaillement; 2) cisailler
1) (n.) General: A scissors of large size.
M.E. sheren, O.E. sceran, scieran; cf. O.H.G. scrinden "to split;", Du. scheren, Ger. scheren "to shear;" from PIE *(s)ker- "to cut, to scrape, to hack;" cf. Pers. kârd "knife;" Av. kart- "to cut;" Skt. krntáti "cuts;" Gk. keirein "to cut, shear;" Lith. skiriu "to separate."
1) Karn, from Laki caré, Farâhâni carra, Tabari carci
"a scissors for cutting sheep wool," cognate with Pers. kârd "knife; "
Mid.Pers. kârt "knife," karēnītan, karītan "to cut;"
Av. karət- "to cut;" cf. Skt. kart- "to cut,"
krpāna- "sword, knife;"
Gk. karpos "fruit;" L. carpere "to cut, divide, pluck;"
PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut."
Fr.: module de cisaillement
The ratio of the applied → stress to the change in shape (→ strain) produced in an → elastic body. The bigger this quantity the more rigid is the material since for the same change in strain a bigger force is needed. Also called → shear modulus.
Fr.: turbulence de cisaillement
A type of → instability occurring within a → fluid as a result of the → shear caused by → differential rotation. The condition for shear instability is expressed by the → Richardson criterion. Shear turbulence is likely the most efficient → mixing process in stellar → radiative zones.
Fr.: onde de cisaillement
A wave that occurs in an elastic medium with the disturbances perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave. Shear waves do not propagate through a fluid. Also called S-wave, secondary wave, and transverse wave.
Shedir (α Cassiopeiae)
The brightest star in the constellation → Cassiopeia. It is a supergiant K0 III star with a visual magnitude of 2.23 at a distance of 230 light-years. It has a large luminosity, 855 times that of our Sun, and a notable size, 48 times that of the Sun. Its effective temperature is 4530 K. Name variants: Schedar, Shedar, and Schedir. Also known as HR 168 and HD 3712.
From Ar. as-sadr (
A domesticated ruminant mammal with a thick woolly coat and (typically only in the male) curving horns. It is kept in flocks for its wool or meat (OxfordDictionaries.com).
M.E., from O.E. sceap; related to O.Frisian skep, O.Saxon scap, O.H.G. scaf, Ger. Schaf.
Gusfand, guspand, from Mid.Pers. gôspand "cattle in general," especially "sheep, goats," as distinguished from horses and cows, Av. gaospənta- "sanctified, consecrated cow," from gao-, → cow, + spənta- "sanctfied, holy," → holiday.
Fr.: coquille; couche
1) General: A relatively thin external form covering a hollow space.
M.E.; O.E. sciell, scill "seashell, eggshell," related to O.E. scealu "shell, husk;" cf. W.Fris. skyl "peel, rind," M.L.G. schelle "rind, egg shell," Goth. skalja "tile;" PIE base *(s)kel- "to cut, cleave."
Pusté "shell," from pust "skin;" Mid.Pers. pôst "skin;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Av. pastô-, in pastô.fraθanhəm "of the breadth of the skin;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth."