An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
accreting
  فربالنده   
farbâlandé

Fr.: accréteur   

That → accretes, such as → accreting star and → accreting neutron star.

Adjective from → accrete + → -ing.

accreting neutron star
  ستاره‌ی ِ نوترونی ِ فربالنده   
setâre-ye notroni-ye farbâlandé

Fr.: étoile à neutron accrétrice   

A → neutron star in a → binary system that accretes matter from the → campion star, either from the → stellar wind or from an → accretion disk that forms if the companion overflows its → Roche lobe. The → gravitational energy from the infalling matter provides at least part of the energy for the observed radiation and the accretion torques dominate the spin evolution. Despite these common properties, accreting → neutron stars display a wide variety of behaviors, depending on the neutron star → magnetic field strength, mass of the companion and properties of → accretion (A. K. Harding, 2013, Front. Phys. 8, 679).

accreting; → neutron; → star.

accreting star
  ستاره‌ی ِ فربالنده   
setâre-ye farbâlandé

Fr.: étoile accrétrice, étoile qui accrète   

The star which → accretes matter, particularly in its protostellar phase or in a close binary system.

accreting; → star.

accretion
  فربال، فربالش   
farbâl, farbâleš

Fr.: accrétion   

1) The process by which an object increases its mass under the influence of its → gravitational attraction. Accretion plays a key role in a wide range of astrophysical phenomena. In particular stars result from the accretion of material by a → protostar from a surrounding → molecular cloud. The accumulation of mass on the protostar involves the formation of an → accretion disk. Theoretical and observational investigations of protostars and newborn stars indicate the important role of → magnetic fields in this process. They favor the magnetospheric accretion model for mass transfer from the circumstellar disk onto the newborn star. In this model, the stellar magnetosphere → truncates the disk at a few stellar radii. Gas from the disk accretes onto the star along the magnetic field lines and hits the stellar surface at approximately the → free fall velocity, causing a strong accretion shock. Various → emission lines, such as the hydrogen → Balmer series, He I 5876 Å, Brγ 2.17 μm, and so forth are formed in the infalling magnetospheric flow. Moreover, optical/ultraviolet excess continuum emission is produced in the → accretion shocks. The accretion is accompanied by mass ejection through collimated → bipolar jets.
2) Accumulation of dust and gas onto larger bodies by → coalescence under the influence of their mutual → gravitational attraction or as a result of chance collisions.
See also:
accretion column, → accretion disk, → accretion flow, → accretion rate, → accretion shock, → accretion time.

L. accretionem (nom. accretio, gen. accretionis) "a growing larger," from stem of accrescere, from ad- "to" + crescere "to grow".

Farbâl from prefix → far- which conveys "increase, abundance" + bâl, from bâlidan "to grow, to wax great," Mid.Pers. vâlitan, Av. varəd-, varədait- "to increase, augment, strengthen, cause to prosper," Skt. vrdh-, vardhati.

accretion column
  ستون ِ فربال   
sotun-e farbâl

Fr.: colonne d'accrétion   

The channel through which matter is accreted onto a body such as a → protostar, → white dwarf, → neutron star, or → black hole. The accreting body possesses magnetic fields strong enough to disrupt the → accretion flow and carry the material through column-shaped channels directly on to a small fraction of the stellar surface near the magnetic poles.

accretion; → column.

accretion disk
  گرده‌ی ِ فربال   
gerde-ye farbâl

Fr.: disque d'accrétion   

A rotating disk of gas and dust formed around a center of strong gravity that pulls material off a surrounding or near-by gaseous object. Accretion disks are associated with several astrophysical objects such as → binary stars, → protostars, → white dwarfs, → neutron stars, and → black holes. Accretion disk forms because the infalling gas does not directly crash the accreting object due to its too high → angular momentum. The individual particles go into a circular orbit around the accretor because the circular orbit has the lowest energy for a given angular momentum. A spread in angular momentum values will give a population of particles moving on different orbits, so that a rotating disk of matter forms around the object. The matter in the disk becomes very hot due to internal friction and → viscosity as well as the tug of the accreting object. Since this hot gas is being accelerated it radiates energy and loses angular momentum and falls onto the accretor. Theoretical and observational pieces of evidence point to the importance of → magnetic fields in the accretion process. According to current models, the stellar magnetosphere → truncates the disk at a few stellar radii. Gas from the disk accretes onto the star along the magnetic field lines and hits the stellar surface at approximately the → free fall velocity, causing a strong accretion shock. See also → flared disk, → self-shadowed disk, → protoplanetary disk, → alpha disk model.

accretion; → disk.

accretion flow
  تچان ِ فربال   
tacân-e farbâl

Fr.: flot d'accrétion   

1) Flow of matter during an accretion process.
2) In a → binary system, flow of matter from the losing-mass → companion toward the compact one. The flow can be from a → stellar wind or through the → inner Lagrangian point.
3) → cold accretion flow, → hot accretion flow.

accretion; → flow.

accretion rate
  نرخ ِ فربال   
nerx-e farbâl

Fr.: taux d'accrétion   

The amount of mass → accreted during unit time. The accretion rate for the → collapse of a singular → isothermal sphere is expressed by: dM/dt = 0.975 cs3/G, where cs is the isothermal → sound speed (Shu 1977, ApJ 214, 488). This relation can be written as: dM/dt = 4.36 x 10-6 (T / 20 K)3/2 in units of solar masses per year, where T is the temperature. Observed temperatures of 10-20 K in regions of → low-mass star formation imply accretion rates of about 10-6 to 10-5 solar masses per year. Accretion rates for → massive stars amount to values of 10-4 to 10-3 solar masses per year.

accretion; → rate.

accretion shock
  تش ِ فربال   
toš-e farbâl

Fr.: choc d'accrétion   

A → shock wave occurring at the surface of a compact object or dense region that is accreting matter with a → supersonic velocity from its environment. In the case of → young stellar objects the process is believed to take place by funneled streams in the form of → accretion columns that originate in the surrounding → accretion disk and flow along the → field lines of the → protostar → magnetosphere. The gas falls supersonically onto the surface of the central body and its impact produces strong shocks of a few million → kelvin, a phenomenon that is observable in → X-rays.

accretion; → shock.

accretion time
  زمان ِ فربال، دیرش ِ ~   
zamân-e farbâl, direš-e ~

Fr.: temps d'accrétion   

The time necessary for the → accretion of a definite amount of mass with a fixed → accretion rate.

accretion; → time.

accretor
  فربالگر   
farbâlgar

Fr.: accréteur   

An → astronomical object that accretes surrounding material. See also → accretion.

Agent noun, from → accrete + → -or.

accumulate
  آکومیدن، انباشتن   
âkumidan, anbâštan

Fr.: accumuler   

To gather or collect, often in gradual degrees; heap up (Dictionary.com).

From ac-, → ad-, + → cumulate; → amass.

accumulator
  انباره، آکومگر   
anbâré (#), âkumgar

Fr.: accumulateur   

A device for storing electricity. An electric current is passed between two plates in a liquid. This causes charges (due to electrolysis) in the plates and the liquid. Same as → secondary cell.

From L. accumulator, from accumulare "to heap up," from → ad- "in addition" + cumulare "heap up," from cumulus "heap."

Anbâré, from anbâr-, anbâštan, → amass; âkumgar, from âkumidan, → accumulate.

accuracy
  رشمندی   
rašmandi

Fr.: exactitude, précision   

1) The state or quality of being → accurate.
2) The degree of nearness of a measured value to the standard or known value of the quantity, not to be confounded with → precision. For example, a refrigerator holds a constant temperature of 5.0 °C. A thermometer is used seven times to read the temperature, with the following results: 6.4, 5.1, 6.3, 4.5, 5.3, 6.1, and 4.1. This distribution does not well match the actual temperature, therefore it lacks accuracy, and shows no tendency toward a particular value; it lacks precision, as well.
If the measured temperatures are 4.8, 5.3, 5.1, 5.0, 4.6, 5.2, and 5.0, the mean value is accurate, because it comes close to the actual temperature, but the distribution shows no clear tendency toward a particular value (lack of precision).
Now suppose that the measured temperatures are 6.2, 6.3, 6.1, 6.0, 6.1, 6.3, and 6.2. In this case every measurement is well off from the actual temperature (low accuracy), but the distribution does show a tendency toward a particular value (high precision).
Finally, if the measured temperatures are 5.0, 5.0, 4.8, 5.1, 5.0, 4.9, and 5.0, the distribution is very near the actual temperature each time (high accuracy), and does show a tendency toward a particular value (high precision).
Accuracy is often given to n → significant digits or n → decimal places. For example e = 2.71828 ... = 2.718 is rounded to two four significant figures or three decimal places. → accurate to n significant figures, → accurate to n decimal places.

From L. accuratus "prepared with care, exact," p.p. of accurare "take care of," from ad- "to" + curare "take care of."

Rašmandi, from rašmand, from raš + adjective forming suffix -mand. Raš, from Av. root raz- "to right, correct, arrange;" compare with Skt. raj "to reign, rule, direct," Gk. oregein "to strech out," L. rego "to direct, lead;" PIE *reg- "to move in a straight line." Similarly, Av. râšta-, rašta- "straight," Skt. rju "straight, right, upright," Gk. orektos "elongated," L. rectus "straight," Ger. recht, E. right. In Mod.Pers. there are several derivatives: râst, râšt (as in afrâšt(an)) "right; true," rasté, rešté, raj, raž, râh, ris, râdé, radé, Lori rezg "row," etc.

accurate
  رشمند   
rašmand

Fr.: exact, précis   

1) Conforming exactly to truth or to a standard; free from error.
2) Designating → accuracy.

Accurate, from L. accuratus, → accuracy.

accurate to n decimal places
  رشمند با n رقم پس از جداگر یا ممیز   
rašmand bâ n raqam pas az jodâgar yâ momayez

Fr.: précis à n décimale, ~ avec n chiffres après la virgule, à n décimales près   

An expression specifying the number of meaningful digits to the right of the → decimal point. For example, e = 2.71828 ... = 2.718 is said to be accurate to three decimal places and 2.72 to two decimal places.

accurate; → decimal; → place.

accurate to n significant digits
  رشمند با n رقم ِ نشانار   
rašmand bâ n raqam-e nešânâr

Fr.: écrit avec n chiffres significatifs   

An expression specifying the number of meaningful digits used to express the value of a measured quantity. Same as accurate to n significant figures. For example, e = 2.71828 ... = 2.718 is rounded to four significant digits, and 2.72 to three significant digits. → accurate to n decimal places.

accurate; → significant; → digit.

accusable
  مارزیدنی   
mârzidani

Fr.: accusable   

Able to be accused; open to an accusation (of); blameworthy, reprehensible (OxfordDictionaries.com).

accuse; → -able.

accusation
  مارزش   
mârzeš

Fr.: accusation   

A charge or claim that someone has done something illegal or wrong; the action or process of accusing someone (OxfordDictionaries.com).

accuse; → -tion.

accusative
  ۱) کنداری؛ ۲) مارزشدار، مارزشمند   
1) kondâri; 2) mârzešdâr, mârzešmand

Fr.: accusatif   

1) → accusative case.
2) → accusatory.

M.E., from M.Fr., from L. accusativus, from ac-, → ad-, + -cusativus, combining form of causativus, → causative, a loan-translation of Gk. aitiatike, in the sense of pointing to the origin or cause, accusing.

1) Kondâri, i.e. → objective case.
2) → accusatory.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>