An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
cosmic infrared background (CIB)
  پس‌زمینه‌ی ِ فروسرخ ِ کیهانی   
paszamine-ye forusorx-e keyhâni

Fr.: le cosmique infrarouge   

A diffuse radiation which consists of the cumulative infrared emission from all galaxies throughout cosmic history. It is about 50 times weaker than the → cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). Since the CIB is produced by the dust within such galaxies, it carries a wealth of information about the processes of star formation therein.

cosmic; → infrared; → background.

cosmic microwave background anisotropy
  ناهمسانگردیِ تابشِ ریزموجِ پس‌زمینه‌یِ کیهانی   
nâhamsângardi-ye tâbeš-e rizmowj-e paszaminé-ye keyhâni

Fr.: anisotropies du rayonnement du fond cosmique microonde   

Tiny fluctuations in the intensity of the → cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) as a function of angular position over the sky, first discovered in the → Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) observations. At a level of 1 part in 100,000, these temperature variations trace the distribution of matter and energy when the Universe was very young, about 380,000 years old. Since the CMB spectrum is described to a high precision by a → blackbody law with temperature T0, it is usual to express the anisotropies in terms of temperature fluctuations ΔT/T0 and expand them on the sky in → spherical harmonic series ΔT/T0 (θ,φ) = Σ almYlm(θ,φ), where θ and φ are the → spherical polar coordinates, Ylm is the spherical harmonic functions with → multipole index l, and the sum runs over l = 1, 2, ..., ∞, m = -l, ..., l, giving 2l + 1 values of m for each l, and alm is the multipole moment of the decomposition. The power spectrum of the anisotropies is defined as Cl≡ mean | alm |2 = 1/(2l + 1) Σ mean | alm |2. See also → CMB angular power spectrum.

cosmic; → microwave; → background; → anisotropy.

cosmic microwave background polarization
  قطبش ِ زمینه‌ی ِ ریزموج ِ کیهانی   
qotbeš-e zamine-ye rizmowj-e keyhâni

Fr.: polarisation du rayonnement du fond cosmique microonde   

The polarization of the → cosmic microwave background radiation due to → Thomson scattering by → free electrons during the → recombination era. The polarization can greatly enhance the precision with which the parameters associated with → acoustic oscillations are derived; because it carries directional information on the sky. When an → electromagnetic wave is incident on a free electron, the scattered wave is polarized perpendicular to the incidence direction. If the incident radiation were → isotropic or had only a → dipole variation, the scattered radiation would have no net polarization. However, if the incident radiation from perpendicular directions (separated by 90°) had different intensities, a net → linear polarization would result. Such → anisotropy is called → quadrupole because the poles of anisotropy are 360°/4 = 90° apart.

cosmic; → microwave; → background; → polarization.

cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR)
  تابشِ ریزموجِ پس‌زمینه‌یِ کیهانی   
tâbeš-e rizmowj-e paszaminé-ye keyhâni

Fr.: rayonnement du fond cosmique microonde   

The diffuse → electromagnetic radiation in the → microwave band, coming from all directions in the sky, which consists of relic photons left over from the very hot, early phase of the → Big Bang. More specifically, the CMBR belong to the → recombination era, when the → Universe was about 380,000 years old and had a temperature of about 3,000 K, or a → redshift of about 1,100. The photons that last scattered at this epoch have now cooled down to a temperature of 2.73 K. They have a pure → blackbody spectrum as they were at → thermal equilibrium before → decoupling. The CMB was discovered serendipitously in 1965 by Penzias and Wilson (ApJ L 142, 419) and was immediately interpreted as a relic radiation of the Big Bang by Dicke et al. (1965, ApJL 142, 383). Such a radiation had been predicted before by Gamow (1948, Nature 162, 680) and by Alpher and Herman (1948, Nature 162, 774). This discovery was a major argument in favor of the Big Bang theory. In 1992, the satellite → Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) discovered the first anisotropies in the temperature of the CMB with an amplitude of about 30 µK. See also: → cosmic microwave background anisotropy, → dipole anisotropy, → CMB lensing, → CMB angular power spectrum, → acoustic peak, → baryon acoustic oscillation, → WMAP.

cosmic; → microwave; → background; → radiation.

cosmic neutrino background (CNB)
  نوترینو‌ی ِ پس‌زمینه‌ی ِ کیهانی   
notrino-ye paszamine-ye keyhâni

Fr.: fond cosmologique de neutrinos   

The theoretical → low-energy neutrinos that decoupled from the rest of matter about two seconds after the → Big Bang when the temperature dropped to approximately 2.5 MeV (redshift of z ~ 6 ×109). The CNB is similar to the → cosmic microwave background (CMB), but older. It is estimated that today the CNB has a temperature of Tν = (4/11)1/3Tγ, ~ 1.95 K (or 1.67 × 10-4 eV), where Tγ is the CMB temperature of 2.728 K. Also called the relic neutrinos.

cosmic; → neutrino; → background.

cosmic radio noise
  نوفه‌یِ رادیوییِ کیهانی   
nufe-ye râdioyi-ye keyhâni

Fr.: bruit radio cosmique   

Radio waves emanating from extraterrestrial sources.

cosmic; → radio; → noise.

cosmic rays
  پرتوهای ِ کیهانی   
partowhâ-ye keyhâni (#)

Fr.: rayons cosmiques   

Extremely energetic atomic nuclei which travel through the Universe at practically the speed of light and strike the Earth from all direction. Almost 90% of all the incoming → primary cosmic rays are → protons, about 9% are helium nuclei (→ alpha particles) and about 1% are → electrons (beta minus particles). Some cosmic rays come from the Sun (mainly due to → solar flares), most come from galactic → supernovae, and a few with the highest energy are suspected to originate from outside the → Milky Way. As for their flux, about 1 charged particle per second per cm2 impacts the Earth. The typical kinetic energy of these particles is about 10 MeV/nucleon to several GeV/nucleon, although there are some at higher energies. In fact, the cosmic ray with the highest energy has been measured above × 1020 eV. These → ultra-high energy cosmic rays are suspected to be extragalactic, as there is no plausible mechanism of acceleration to these energies by a supernova, for example. Again, compare these energies to those of solar neutrinos that have only 0.26 MeV. Cosmic rays may be divided into → primary cosmic rays and → secondary cosmic rays. Their energy ranges from 109 to 1020  → electron-volts.

cosmic; → ray; The term "ray" is a misnomer, as cosmic particles arrive individually, not in the form of a ray or beam of particles.

cosmic scale factor
  کروند ِ مرپل ِ کیهانی   
karvand-e marpal-e keyhâni

Fr.: facteur d'échelle cosmologique   

A quantity, denoted a(t), which describes how the distances between any two galaxies change with time. The physical distance d(t) between two points in the Universe can be expressed as d(t) = R(t).x, where R(t) is the → scale factor and x the → comoving distance between the points. The cosmic scale factor is related to the → redshift, z, by: 1 + z = R(t0)/R(t1), where t0 is the present time and t1 is the time at emission of the radiation. The quantity (1 + z) gives the factor by which the → Universe has expanded in size between t1 and t0. It is also related to the → Hubble parameter by H(t) = R.(t)/R(t), where R.(t) is the time → derivative of the scale factor. In an → expanding Universe the scale factor increases with time. See also the → Friedmann equation.

cosmic; → scale; → factor.

cosmic shear
  کرن ِ کیهانی   
karn-e keyhâni

Fr.: cisaillement cosmique, ~ gravitationnel   

The distortion of images of distant galaxies due to → weak gravitational lensing by → large-scale structures in the → Universe (see, e.g., Kilbinger, M., 2015, arXiv:1411.0115).

cosmic; → shear.

cosmic star formation peak
  چکاد ِ کیهانی ِ دیسش ِ ستارگان   
cakâd-e keyhâni-ye diseš-e setâregân

Fr.: pic de formation stellaire cosmique   

A crucial period in the history of the → Universe, when the bulk of stars in massive galaxies were likely formed. Observations of young stars in distant galaxies at different times in the past have indicated that the → star formation rate peaked at the → redshift of z ~ 2, some 10 billion years ago, before declining by a factor of around ten to its present value (P. Madau & Dickinson, 2014, arXiv:1403.0007).

cosmic; → star; → formation; → peak.

cosmic string
  ریسمان ِ کیهانی   
rismân-e keyhâni

Fr.: corde cosmique   

A hypothetical → cosmic defect predicted to be infinitesimally small in cross section but enormously long and massive. Cosmic strings should not be confounded with → subatomic strings predicted by → string theory.

cosmic; → string.

cosmic texture
  بافت ِ کیهانی   
bâft-e keyhâni

Fr.: texture cosmique   

A type of → cosmic defect in the fabric of space-time predicted in some models of the early Universe.

cosmic; → texture

cosmic time
  زمان ِ کیهانی   
zamân-e keyhâni

Fr.: temps cosmique   

The time as measured by a clock that is at rest relative to the expanding space, and that has been set to zero at the very beginning, the time of the hypothetical → Big Bang singularity. The cosmic time is interpreted as the → age of the Universe (Einstein-online).

cosmic; → time.

cosmic web
  وپ ِ کیهانی   
vap-e keyhâni

Fr.: toile cosmique   

The entire, large-scale structure of the → Universe in which → galaxy clusters are connected by → cosmic filaments (made up of → dark matter and → baryons) in a spongelike geometry, while the low-density → voids are connected to each other by low-density tunnels. The term cosmic web was coined in 1996 by J. Richard Bond et al. (Nature, 380, 603).

cosmic; → web.

cosmic-ray burst
  بلک ِ پرتوهای ِ کیهانی   
belk-e partowhâ-ye keyhâni

Fr.: sursaut de rayons cosmiques   

An intense beam of cosmic rays coming from any direction on the sky, which originates outside the solar system.

cosmic; → ray; → burst.

cosmic-ray event
  رویداد ِ پرتوهای ِ کیهانی   
ruydâd-e partowhâ-ye keyhâni

Fr.: événement des rayons cosmiques, un cosmique   

Spurious signals in CCD frames caused by ionizing radiation which appear as a set of pixels with intense values sparsely scattered over the CCD frame. High energy particles generate muons, which deposit around 80 electrons per micron in silicon. With a collection depth of 10-20 microns, a cosmic-ray event is seen on a CCD frame as having a signal of up to a few thousand electrons, usually concentrated in one or two pixels. Although attributed to cosmic-ray hits, they may also be due to background terrestrial radiation.

cosmic rays; → event.

cosmic-ray ionization
  یونش ِ پرتوهای ِ کیهانی   
yoneš-e partowhâ-ye keyhâni

Fr.: ionisation par rayons cosmiques   

The ionization of → interstellar medium (ISM) gas by → cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are a primary source of ionization, competing with stellar → ultraviolet photons and → X-rays produced by embedded → young stellar objects. Cosmic rays play a key role in the chemistry and dynamics of the interstellar medium. The ionization fraction in turn drives the chemistry of → molecular clouds and controls the coupling of the gas with the Galactic → magnetic field. Moreover, cosmic rays represent an important source of → heating for → molecular clouds because the energy of primary and secondary electrons produced by the ionization process is in large part converted into heat by → inelastic collisions with ISM atoms and → molecules (see, e.g., Padovanit et al., 2009, arXiv:0904.4149).

cosmic; → ray; → ionization.

cosmic-ray shower
  تندبار ِ پرتوهای ِ کیهانی، رگبار ِ ~   
tondbâr-e partowhâ-ye keyhâni, ragbâr-e ~

Fr.: gerbe cosmique   

An extensive (many kilometres wide) → cascade of ionized particles and electromagnetic radiation produced in the atmosphere when a → primary cosmic rays collides with atmospheric nuclei creating many → secondary cosmic rays. Also known as → air shower.

cosmic; → ray; → shower.

cosmo-
  کیهان-   
keyhân- (#)

Fr.: cosmo-   

Combining form of → cosmos.

cosmos.

cosmochemistry
  کیهان-شیمی   
keyhân-šimi

Fr.: cosmochimie   

The study of the chemical composition of the universe and the processes that produced those compositions. Cosmochemistry is an interdisciplinary science that overlaps with geochemistry, geology, astronomy, astrophysics, and geophysics.

cosmo-; → chemistry.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>