An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
quark-hadron phase transition
  گذرش ِ فاز ِ کو‌آرک-هادرون   
gozareš-e fâz-e kuârk-hâdron

Fr.: transition de phase quark-hadron   

A phase transition, predicted by cosmological models, to have occurred at approximately 10-5 seconds after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadron.

quark; → hadron; → phase; → transition.

quarter
  چارَک   
cârak (#)

Fr.: quartier   

A fourth of the Moon's period or monthly revolution around Earth. → first quarter; → last quarter.

from O.Fr. quartier, from L. quartarius "fourth part," from quartus "fourth," related to quattuor "four," cognate with Pers. câr, cahâr, as below.

Cârak "quarter," literally "fourth, a fourth part of one," from câr, contraction of cahâr, → four, + -ak, contraction of yak, yek "one." Yek "one, alone," from Mid.Pers. êwak (Proto-Iranian *aiua-ka-); O.Pers. aiva- "one, alone;" Av. aēuua- "one, alone;" cf. Skt. éka- "one, alone, single;" Gk. oios "alone, lonely;" L. unus "one;" E. one.

quarter-wave plate
  تیغه‌ی ِ چارک-موج   
tiqe-ye cârak-mowj

Fr.: lame quart d'onde   

A plate of doubly refracting material cut parallel to the optic axis of the crystal and of such a thickness that a phase difference of 90° is introduced between the ordinary and extraordinary rays for light of a particular wavelength. → half-wave plate.

quarter; → wave; → plate.

quartic equation
  هموگش ِ چارُمیک   
hamugeš-e câromik

Fr.: équation quartique   

An equation containing unknowns of the fourth power; the general form: ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e = 0.

From L. quart(us) "fourth" (→ quarter) + → -ic; → equation.

hamugeš, → equation; câromân, from cârom "fourth," from câr, cahâr "four" + -om "-th" + -ik, → -ic.

quartile
  چارکوار   
cârakvâr

Fr.: quartile   

In statistics, any of the four groups of a frequency distribution each containing 25% of the total number of individual observations.

From M.L. quartilis, from quart(us) "fouth" + -ilis "-ile" a suffix of adjectives expressing capability, susceptibility, liability, aptitude.

Cârakvâr, from cârak, → quarter, + -vâr suffix of similarity, size, aptitude.

quartz
  کو‌آرتز   
kuârtz (#)

Fr.: quartz   

One of the most abundant → minerals in the Earth's → crust. Quartz is made up of silicon dioxide (SiO2), or → silica. It has marked → piezoelectric properties and → dielectric strength.

From Ger. Quarz "rock crystal," from M.H.G. twarc.

quasar
  کو‌آسار، ستاره‌وَش   
kuâsâr (#), setârevaš (#)

Fr.: quasar   

An compact, extragalactic object which is highly luminous and looks like a star. Their redshifts can be large and their brightness varies. Quasars have an intrinsic luminosity which can reach some 100 times that of bright galaxies. They are thought to be active galactic nuclei with a size a little larger than the solar system. The first quasar to be identified as such, in 1963, was the radio source 3C 273 at a redshift of 0.158. With its 13th magnitude, it is the optically brightest quasar as observed from Earth. Some quasars are strong radio sources.

From quas(i) + (stell)ar (object).

Setârevaš, from setâré, → star, + -vaš, → quasi-.

quasi-
  چونان-، -وش   
cunân-, -vaš

Fr.: quasi-   

A prefix meaning "resembling, almost, having some, but not all of the features of."

From L. quasi "as if, as though," from qua(m)" as" + si "if."

Cunân "so, like that; just as if," from cun "how?," (Mid.Pers. cigôn "how?," cigônêh "nature, character," O.Pers/Av. ci- "what, any," collateral stem to ka- "who?, what?;" cf. Skt. ka-; Gk. po-; L. quo-; E. what, who; PIE *qwos/*qwes) + suffix ân. -vaš a suffix of similitude.

quasi-atom
  چونان-اتم، اتم‌وَش   
cunân-atom, atom-vaš

Fr.: quasi-atome   

A system in which the nuclei of two colliding atoms approach each other closely for a brief lapse of time so that their electrons are arranged in atomic orbitals characteristic of a single atom with combined atomic number.

quasi-; → atom.

quasi-closed subsystem
  زیر-راژمان ِ چونان‌بسته   
zir-râžmân-e cunân-basté

Fr.: sous-système quasi-fermé   

A subsystem if its intrinsic energy is large, on the average, with respect to the energy of its interaction with other portions of the → closed system.

quasi-; → closed; → subsystem.

quasi-linear theory
  نگره‌ی ِ چونان-خطی   
negare-ye cunân-xatti

Fr.: théorie quasi-linéaire   

In plasma physics, the theory that considers the interactions between waves and particles are of first order only. It ignores all terms of second order in the fluctuating quantities.

quasi-; → linear; → theory.

quasi-satellite
  چونان‌ماهواره، چونان‌بنده‌وار   
cunân-mâhvâré, cunân-bandevâr

Fr.: quasi-satellite   

An asteroid moving around the Sun having the same mean motion and mean → longitude as a planet, but a different → eccentricity. The asteroid remains near the planet much like a satellite even when its distance is large enough so that it is well outside the planet's → Hill sphere. The quasi-satellite motion is one class of possible → co-orbital motions of small bodies in 1:1 mean-motion → resonance with a planet. If the quasi-satellite orbit is coplanar with the planet, then the motion is stable in the → secular approximation. When the orbits are inclined enough, an asteroid can be trapped into such a motion for a finite period of time. Earth has several quasi-satellites (mainly 3753 Cruithne, 2002 AA29, 2003 YN107), also does Venus (the only one so far discovered, 2002 VE68). The possibility of such orbits was first suggested by J. Jackson (1913, MNRAS 74, 62).

The term quasi-satellite was first used by S. Mikkola & K. Innanen 1997, The Dynamical Behaviour of our Planetary System; Proceedings, p. 345); → quasi-; → satellite.

quasi-separatrix layer (QSL)
  لایه‌ی ِ چونان‌جداگر   
lâye-ye cunân-jodâgar

Fr.: couche quasi-séparatrice   

A region of the solar atmosphere where the gradient of the field line → linkage from one boundary to another is large so that the field lines can slip-run rapidly through the → plasma. The QSL results from → magnetic reconnection without → null point.

quasi-; → separatrix; → layer.

quasi-single-scattering approximation
  نزدینش ِ چونان-تک‌پراکنش   
nazdineš-e cunân-tak-parâkaneš

Fr.:   

A model of radiative transfer that ignores forward scattering of photons; assuming forward-scattered light as un-scattered.

quasi-; → single; → scattering; → approximation.

quasi-stellar object
  بر‌آخت ِ چونان‌ستاره‌ای   
barâxt-e cunân-setâre-yi

Fr.: objet quasi-stellaire   

Initial name of → quasars.

quasi-; → stellar; → object.

quasi-stellar radio source
  ر‌آدیو-خن ِ چونان‌ستاره، ~ ~ ِ ستاره‌وش   
râdio-xan-e cunân setâré, ~ ~ setâré-vaš

Fr.: radiosource quasi-stellaire   

A quasar with detectable radio emission.

quasi-; → stellar; → radio; → source.

quasicrystal
  چونان‌بلور   
cunân-bolur

Fr.: quasi-cristal   

A form of solid made up of ordered but non-repeating patterns of atoms, a symmetry that is forbidden for periodic crystals. In an ordinary crystal, only 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-fold symmetries are possible, since these are the only symmetries that, when combined, can fill space. Prior to the discovery of quasicrystals, it was believed that 5-fold crystal symmetry could never occur. Quasicrystals are remarkable in that some of them display 5-fold or higher-fold forbidden symmetries. They are used as catalysts, in particular at high temperatures, to produce durable kinds of steel, like those used in objects such as razor blades and thin needles made specifically for eye surgery. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011 was awarded to Daniel Schechtman for his discovery of quasicrystals in 1982.

quasi-; → crystal.

quasiperiodic motion
  جنبش ِ چونان-دوره‌ای   
jonbeš-e cunân-dowreyi

Fr.: mouvement quasipériodique   

In a dynamical system, a form of motion that is regular but never exactly repeating. Quasiperiodic motion appears when the system contains two or more incommensurate frequencies.

quasi-; → periodic; → motion.

Quaternary period
  دوران ِ چهارم   
dowrân-e cahârom

Fr.: quaternaire   

The last two million years of geologic time, comprising the Pleistocene and Holocene glacial epochs. Estimates of the date of the beginning of the Quaternary vary between 2.5 and 1.6 million years ago.

Quaternary, from L. quaternarius "consisting of four," from quatern(i) "fourt at a time" + -arius "-ary;" → period.

Dowrân, → period; cahârom "fourth," from cahâr "four" + -om "-th."

quench
  ۱) اسراندن؛ ۲، ۳) اسریدن؛ ۳) آب دادن   
1) oserândan 2, 3) oseridan; 3) âb dâdan

Fr.: 1) étouffer, découper, étancher, assécher; 2) s'étouffer; 3) tremper   

1a) To put out or extinguish.
1b) Electronics: To terminate the discharge in a vacuum tube by application of a voltage.
2) To become extinguished.
3) To dip a heated object into a liquid to quickly reduce the temperature.

M.E. quenchen, from O.E. acwencan "to quench," form of root of cwincan "to go out, be extinguished."

Oseridan, oserândan, from Yaghnobi oser- "to cool," Wakhi wəsər-/wəsərt "to fade, wither," related to Pers. sard "cold, cool" (Kurd. sar, Baluchi sârt, Ossetian sald "cold" ), afsordan, afsârdan "to congeal;" Mid.Pers. sard/sart "cold;" Av. sarəta- "cold;" cf. Skt. śiśira- "cold;" L. calidus "warm;" Lith. šaltas "cold;" Welsh clyd "warm;" PIE *keltos- "cool."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>