An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
aluminizing, aluminization
  آلومینیوم اندود   
âluminiom andud (#)

Fr.: aluminisation   

The process by which the coating of aluminium is deposited on a telescope mirror.

Verbal noun of → aluminize.

AM CVn star
  ستاره‌ی ِ AM سگان ِ تازی   
setâre-ye AM Sagân-e Tâzi

Fr.: étoile AM CVn   

A → binary system that has very short orbital period (less than one hour) and helium dominated spectrum. The prototype, AM Canum Venaticorum, with a period of 17 minutes, was discovered in 1967. AM CVn stars are → semidetached binary systems in which → accretion is going on. The → donor star is hydrogen deficient and the → accretor is usually a → white dwarf. To fit within their → Roche lobes, the donor stars must be dense, suggesting they may be → degenerate too. It is at present thought that AM CVn stars represent three possible evolutionary phases in 1) → double white dwarf systems, 2) white dwarf and → helium star binaries, and 3) → cataclysmic variables with evolved donors. For a review see G. Nelemans 2005, astro-ph/0409676.

AM, letters of alphabet used in variable star designations; CVn, abbreviation of → Canes Venatici; → star.

AM Herculis
   AM هراکلس   
AM Herâkles

Fr.: AM Herculis   

A → red dwarf variable star located in the constellation → Hercules. AM Herculis usually remains in its "high" state (V ~ 13 mag), but from time to time it drops into a "low" state (V> 15 mag) that may last weeks or months. Originally classified as an irregular variable and associated with the X-ray source 3U 1809+50, AM Her was discovered in 1976 to be a short-period → binary system (3.1 hour orbital period) related to the → cataclysmic variables. It is in fact an → interacting binary in which a red dwarf (M4 V) loses mass to a → white dwarf primary star. The white dwarf has a very strong magnetic field (B ~ 2 × 108 G) and rotates synchronously with the orbit. The magnetic field constrains the → mass loss from the secondary star to flow along a stream directly onto the white dwarf rather than into an → accretion disk as in the nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables. The optical spectrum shows strong emission lines of H, He I, and He II, along with weaker lines of other ions such as N III, C III, C II, and Ca II, all showing large velocity variations. → TiO bands from the M4 V secondary star are detected when the system is in its "low" state. AM Her is the class prototype of the → polars (see, e.g., Hutchings et al. 2002, AJ 123, 2841).

AM, letters of alphabet used in variable star designations; → Hercules.

Am star
  ستاره‌ی ِ Am   
setâre-ye Am

Fr.: étoile Am   

A chemically peculiar A- or early F-type star showing an overabundance of → heavy elements and an underabundance of calcium and scandium. An Am star cannot receive a unique spectral type, as different methods (using the metallic lines, the hydrogen Balmer lines, and the calcium Ca II K-lines) yield three different spectral types. Contrarily to Ap stars, Am stars do not have significant external magnetic fields. Their rotational velocities are about 100-120 km s-1 smaller than those of → Ap stars.

A for the spectral type, m for → metal; → star.

Amalthea [Jupiter V]
  آمالتیءا   
Âmâlteâ (#)

Fr.: Amalthée   

The third of Jupiter's known satellites orbiting at about 181,300 km from Jupiter with a period of about 12h. A mean diameter of 189 km makes it the fifth largest satellite of Jupiter. Amalthea was discovered by E. Barnard in 1892.

Amalthea, in Gk. mythology, the goat that suckled Zeus after his mother had him sent to Crete so his father would not eat him.

amass
  انباشتن   
anbâštan (#)

Fr.: amasser   

1) To collect into a mass or pile; → accumulate.
2) To gather for oneself; collect as one's own (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. amasser, from à "to," → ad-, + masser "to gather in mass," → mass.

Anbâštan, anbârdan "to fill, to replete," from Mid.Pers. hambāridan "to fill;" from Proto-Iranian *ham-par-, from prefix ham-, → com-, + par- "to fill;" cf. Av. par- "to fill," parav-, pauru-, pouru- "full, much, many;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Mid.Pers. purr "full;" Mod.Pers. por "full, much, very;" PIE base *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru- "much, abundant;" Gk. polus "many," plethos "great number, multitude;" O.E. full.

amateur
  دوستکار   
dustkâr (#)

Fr.: amateur   

One who engages in an activity (study, science, or sport) as a pastime rather than as a profession. → amateur astronomer, → amateur astronomy.

From Fr. amateur "lover of, one who has a taste for (something)," from L. amator "lover," from amare "to love."

Dustkâr, a variant of dustâr, dustdâr "he who likes, lover, supporter," from dust "friend, lover" + kâr "occupation, → work."

amateur astronomer
  اخترشناس ِ دوستکار   
axtaršenâs-e dustkâr (#)

Fr.: astronome amateur   

A person who engages in astronomy as a pastime rather than as a profession. → amateur astronomy. See also → professional astronomer.

amateur; → astronomer.

amateur astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ دوستکار   
axtaršenâsi-ye dustkâr (#)

Fr.: astronomie amateur   

The astronomical activities carried out by → amateur astronomers.

amateur; → astronomy.

Amazonian era
  دوران ِ آمازونی   
dowrân-e Âmâzoni

Fr.: ère amazonienne   

The current geologic era on Mars that began around 2 billion to 3 billion years ago. It is characterized by lower geologic activity such as volcanism and only occasional releases of underground water. A dry environment with a very thin atmosphere in which water can only exist as a solid or a gas, not as a liquid. → Noachian era; → Hesperian era.

Named for the young lava-covered plains called Amazonia Planitia. → era.

amber
  کهربا   
kahrobâ (#)

Fr.: ambre   

A hard translucent yellow, orange, or brownish-yellow fossil resin. Amber becomes negatively charged when rubbed with wool, because it attracts negative charges (electrons) and will take them from wool.

M.E. ambre, from O.Fr., from L. ambra, ambar, from Ar. 'anbar "ambergris, amber," from Mid.Pers. ambar, → ambergris.

Kahrobâ, from kah "straw" + robâ "attractor." The first component kah, kâh "straw, hay," from Mid.Pers. kâh "chaff, straw;" cf. Pali kattha- "a piece of wood;" Skt. kastha- "stick;" Gk. klados "twig;" O.Ir. caill "wood;" P.Gmc. *khulto-; Ger. Holz "wood;" E. holt; PIE *kldo-. The second component robâ, from robudan "to attract, to grab, rob;" Av. urūpaiieinti "to cause racking pain(?);" cf. Skt. rup- "to suffer from abdominal pain," rurupas "to cause violent pain," ropaná- "causing racking pain," rópi- "racking pain;" L. rumpere "to break;" O.E. reofan "to break, tear." In Arabic kahrobâ, a loanword from Persian, is used as equivalent for electricity.

ambergris
  عنبر   
anbar (#)

Fr.: ambre gris   

A wax-like, ash-colored, strongly scent substance present in the intestines of → whales and found in seas or cast ashore. Used in perfumery.

From M.Fr. ambre gris "gray amber," → gray; → amber.

Anbar "ambergris," from Mid.Pers. ambar.

ambi-
  اوبا-   
ubâ-

Fr.: ambi-   

Both, on both sides.

L. ambi "around, about," akin to Gk. amphi "around, about," Skt. abhi "on both sides," Av. aibi, aiwi, O.Pers. aiby "to, against, in addition to," Mid.Pers. aw-, ab-, Mod.Pers. af- (as in afzudan "to increase, add," afruxtan "to inflame, kindle, blaze," afqân "lamentation, groaning, cires for help"); O.H.G. umbi, O.E. ymb(e); PIE *ambhi- "around".

Ubâ- from O.Pers./Av. uba- (variants uva-, ava-, va-) "both," Skt. ubha "both," PIE *ubho(u); cf. Gk. ampho, L. ambo, Goth. bai, O.H.G. beide, Slav. oba, Lith. abhu.

ambiguity
  اوبازناکی   
ubâznâki

Fr.: ambiguité   

The quality of state of being → ambiguous.

ambiguous; → -ity.

ambiguous
  اوبازناک   
ubâznâk

Fr.: ambigueux   

Having more than one possible interpretation or meaning.

From L. ambiguus "having double meaning; doubtful," from ambigere "to be uncertain," from → ambi- "both; around" + agere "to drive, lead," → act; cf. Av. az- "to drive, lead;" Pers. niyâz "need, want, misery,"

Ubâznâk, from ubâz, literally "having double directions," from ubâ, → ambi-, + âz, from Av. az- "to lead, direct, drive," → act, + -nâk adj. suffix.

ambipolar
  اوبا قطبی   
ubâqotbi

Fr.: ambipolaire   

1) Applying equally to both positive and negative ions.
2) Operating in two opposite directions simultaneously. → bipolar.

Ambipolar, from → ambi- + → polar.

ambipolar diffusion
  پخش ِ اوبا قطبی   
paxš-e ubâqotbi

Fr.: diffusion ambipolaire   

A physical process which allows a → molecular cloud to decouple from → interstellar magnetic field in order to undergo → gravitational collapse. A cloud of pure molecular gas would form stars very fast through collapse since neutral matter does not respond to the magnetic field. However, the magnetic field holds up a collapse because the ions present in the cloud collide with the neutrals and tie them to the field. The collapse can then only proceed if the magnetic field can be separated from the gas. In denser molecular cores the ionization degree decreases substantially and therefore neutrals and ions decouple.

ambipolar; → diffusion.

amblyopia
  تنبل‌چشمی   
tanbalcašmi

Fr.: amblyopie   

A defect of vision due to abnormal development, without detectable organic lesion of the eye.

From Gk. amblyopia "dim-sightedness," from amblys "dulled, blunt" + ops, → eye.

Tambalcašmi, literally "eye laziness," from tambal "lazy" + cašm, → eye.

americium
  آمریسیوم   
âmerisiom (#)

Fr.: américium   

An artificially produced → radioactivechemical element; symbol Am. → Atomic number 95; → atomic weight of most stable → isotope 243; → melting point about 1,175°C; → boiling point about 2,600°C; → specific gravity 13.67 at 20°C; → valence +2, +3, +4, +5, or +6. Its most stable isotope, 243Am, has → half-life of 7.4 x 103 years.

From America, where it was first synthesized in 1944 by Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Leon O. Morgan, and Albert Ghiorso, who bombarded plutonium-239 with neutrons to form plutonium-241, which decays to form americium-241.

ammonia
  آمونیاک   
âmoniyâk (#)

Fr.: ammoniac   

An irritating, colorless, gaseous compound of → nitrogen and → hydrogen (NH3), which is lighter than air and readily soluble in water. It is formed in nature as a by-product of protein metabolism in animals. Ammonia is used in the preparation of many substances containing nitrogen, such as fertilizers, explosives, refrigerants, and so on.

Coined in 1782 by Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman (1735-1784) for gas obtained from ammoniac, a salt and a gum resin containing ammonium chloride found near temple of Jupiter Ammon in Libya, from Gk. ammoniakos "belonging to Ammon" (Egyptian God).

Âmoniyâk, loan from Fr.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>