An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
random error
  ایرنگ ِ کاتوره   
irang-e kâturé

Fr.: erreur fortuite   

The fluctuating part of the overall error that varies from measurement to measurement. Normally, the random error is defined as the deviation of the total error from its mean value; opposite of → systematic error.

random; → error.

random experiments
  آزمایش‌های ِ کاتوره   
âzmâyešhâ-ye kâturé (#)

Fr.: expériences aléatoires   

Statistics: Experiments in which results will not be essentially the same even though conditions may be nearly identical.

random; → experiment.

random noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ کاتوره   
nufe-ye kâture

Fr.: bruit aléatoire   

Unpredictable noise comprising large numbers of frequent, transient impulses occurring at statistically random time intervals. Thermal noise is a form of random noise.

random; → noise.

random sample
  نمونان ِ کاتوره   
nemunân-e kâturé

Fr.: échantillon aléatoire   

A sample selected at random from a population.

random; → sample.

random structure
  ساختار ِ کاتوره   
sâxtâr-e kâturé

Fr.: structure aléatoire   

Crystalline arrangement in which equivalent positions are not necessarily occupied by atoms of a single kind.

random; → structure.

random thermal motion
  جنبش ِ گرمایی ِ کاتوره   
jonbeš-e garmâyi-ye kâturé

Fr.: mouvement thermique aléatoire   

The agitated motion of molecular, atomic, or → subatomic particles in all possible directions at any temperature, except at → absolute zero, where → thermal motion would cease.

random; → thermal; → motion.

random variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ کاتوره   
vartande-ye kâturé

Fr.: variable aléatoire   

A quantity that takes different real values as a result of the → outcomes of a → random event or experiment involving specified probabilities.

random; → variable.

random walk
  پویش ِ کاتوره   
puyeš-e kâturé

Fr.: marche aléatoire, ~ au hasard   

The trajectory consisting of a series of successive moves in which the direction and size of each move is randomly determined.

random; → walk.

randomization
  کاتورش   
kâtureš (#)

Fr.: aléation   

Arrangement of data in such a way as to simulate chance occurrence.

Verbal noun of → randomize.

randomize
  کاتوریدن   
kâturidan (#)

Fr.: répartir au hasard   

To arrange or select in a random manner in order to reduce bias and interference caused by irrelevant variables.

Verbal form of → random.

randomness
  کاتورگی   
kâturegi (#)

Fr.: hasard   

The property of being random.

State, condition noun of → random.

range
  ۱) بُرد؛ ۲)، ۳) گستره   
1) bord; (#) 2), 3) gostaré (#)

Fr.: 1) portée; 2), 3) étendue   

1) Physics: The maximum distance a projectile travels.
2) Math.: The → set of values that actually comes out of a → function. The range is a → subset of the → codomain.
3) Statistics: The interval between the largest and smallest values in a statistical distribution.

M.E., from O.Fr. range "range, rank," from rangier "to place in a row, arrange," from reng "row, line."

1) Bord past stem of bordan "to carry, transport" (Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, L. fero "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry").
2) Gostaré, from gostar, gostardan "to expand; to spread; to diffuse" (Mid.Pers. wistardan "to extend; to spread;" Proto-Iranian *ui.star-; Av. vi- "apart, away from, out" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + Av. star- "to spread," starati "spreads;" cf. Skt. star- "to spread out, extend, strew," strnati "spreads;" Gk. stornumi "I spread out," strotos "spread, laid out;" L. sternere "to spread;" Ger. Strahlung "radiation," from strahlen "to radiate," from Strahl "ray;" from M.H.G. strāle; from O.H.G. strāla "arrow," stripe; PIE base *ster- "to spread").

rank
  رتبه   
rotbé (#)

Fr.: rang   

Position, in a series arranged in order, on the basis of some principle of arrangement, with reference to the other items or values in the series.

M.E., from O.E. ranc "proud, overbearing, showy," from O.Fr. renc, ranc, rang "row, line;" cf. Dan. rank "right, upright," Ger. rank "slender," O.N. rakkr "straight, erect," perhaps from PIE *reg- "to stretch, straighten," cognate with Pers. râst, → right.

Rotbé, loan from Ar. ratbat "rank."

Rankine scale
  مرپل ِ رنکین   
marpel-e Rankine

Fr.: échelle Rankine   

A temperature scale in which the degree intervals are the same size as in the → Fahrenheit scale, but 0 is set at absolute zero, -459.69 °F. Therefore, 1 degree Rankine is equal to exactly 5/9 → kelvin. It was formerly used by engineers in English-speaking countries, but is now obsolete. See also → Celsius scale, → Kelvin scale, → Reaumur scale.

Named for the British physicist and engineer William John Rankine (1820-1872); → scale.

Rankine-Hugoniot conditions
  بوتارهای ِ رانکین-هوگونیو   
butârhâ-ye Rankine-Hugoniot

Fr.: conditions de Rankine-Hugoniot   

Hydrodynamics → conservation laws (which can be extended to → magnetohydrodynamics, MHD) which describe the physical conditions of material across a → shock front. A fluid is completely described by its velocity, density, pressure, specific heat ratio, and magnetic field (in the MHD case). Mass, momentum, and energy fluxes are conserved in the shock, leading to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. Also called Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions. See also → jump condition.

Named after William John Rankine, → Rankine scale, and Pierre Henri Hugoniot, → Hugoniot curve; → condition.

Raoult's law
  قانون ِ رایءول   
qânun-e Raoult (#)

Fr.: loi de Raoult   

The → vapor pressure of an ideal → solution is dependent on the vapor pressure of each chemical component and the → mole fraction of the component present in the solution. This means that the addition of → solute to a liquid lessens the tendency for the liquid to become a → solid or a → gas. For example, the addition of → salt to water causes the water to freeze below its normal → freezing point (0°C) and to boil above its normal → boiling point (100°C).

After François-Marie Raoult (1830-1901), the French chemist who studied the physical properties of chemical solutions; → law.

rapid
  تند   
tond (#)

Fr.: rapide   

Occurring within a short time; happening speedily; moving or acting with great speed; swift (Dictionary.com).

From L. rapidus "tearing away, seizing, swift," from rapere "to hurry away, seize, plunder;"

Tond "swift, rapid, brisk; fierce, severe" (Mid.Pers. tund "sharp, violent;" Sogdian tund "violent;" cf. Skt. tod- "to thrust, give a push," tudáti "he thrusts;" L. tundere "to thrust, to hit" (Fr. percer, E. pierce, ultimately from L. pertusus, from p.p. of pertundere "to thrust or bore through;" PIE base *(s)teud- "to thrust, to beat").

Rapid Burster
  بلکور ِ تند   
belkvar-e tond

Fr.: source à sursaut rapide   

An object with technical designation MXB 17302335 which is characterized by erratic and extremely intense → X-ray emissions. The Rapid Burster is a → binary system comprising a → low-mass star as its → primary and a → secondary  → neutron star. The → gravitational attraction of the neutron star strips its → companion of some of its gas, which then forms an → accretion disk and spirals toward the neutron star. The Rapid Burster is located at a distance of 110 kpc in the highly reddened → globular cluster Liller 1. It is a → low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) and a recurrent → X-ray transient. So far less than 200 LMXBs have been detected in the → Galaxy and the → Magellanic Clouds. All produce a persistent flux of X-rays, the result of a release of → gravitational potential energy. Approximately 40 of them also exhibit → Type I bursts which are due to → thermonuclear flashes on the surface of a neutron star. The Rapid Burster is unique among the LMXBs in that it produces X-ray bursts in quick succession. These are called → Type II bursts, and they result from a spasmodic release of gravitational potential energy, which is due to some unknown → accretion disk instability (Lewin et al., 1996, ApJ 462, L39).

rapid; → burster.

rapidly oscillating Ap star
  ستاره‌ی Apی ِ تند نونده   

Fr.: étoile Ap à oscillation rapide   

A chemically peculiar star characterized by the presence of high-frequency non-radial oscillations, with periods that range between about 4 and 16 min. These variations have periods from about 5 to 20 minutes and low amplitudes (B < 10 mmag). They are consistent with acoustic (→ p mode) pulsations of low degree and high radial overtone.

rapid; → -ly; → oscillate; → -ing; → Ap star.

rapids
  تنداب   
tondâb (#)

Fr.: rapides   

A part of a river where the current runs very swiftly. See also → torrent.

rapid.

Tondâb, from tond, → rapid, + âb, → water.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>