An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
hygrometer
  نم‌سنج   
namsanj (#)

Fr.: hygromètre   

An instrument that measures the relative humidity of the air.

hygro- + → -meter.

hylotrope
  ماده‌گرد   
mâdegard

Fr.: hylotrope   

A member of a class of equations of state used in some models concerned with the evolution of a hypothetical supermassive star. The supermassive star is assumed to consist of a → convective core, which obeys a → polytropic law, and an envelope, which contains most of the whole mass, and follows the hylotropic → equation of state. This equation is expressed by P = A ρ4/3Mα, where A is a constant, ρ the density, M the mass, and α an index. First introduced by Mitchell C. Begelman (2010, MNRAS 402, 673).

From → hylotropic, on the model of → polytrope.

hylotropic
  ماده‌گرد   
mâdegard

Fr.: hylotropique   

Physical chemistry: Describing a substance that is capable of undergoing a change in phase (as from a liquid to a gas), with no change in chemical composition. If the substance is hylotropic over a limited range of pressure and temperatures, it is a pure chemical substance. If it is hylotropic over all pressure and temperatures except the most extreme ones, it is a → chemical element. See also → hylotrope.

First suggested by Wilhelm Ostwald (1904, in Annalen der Naturphilosophie 3, 355), from Gk. hylo-, combining form of hyle "matter; wood," because of the dependence on the composition, + → -tropic.

Mâdegard, from mâdé, → matter, + gard, → -tropic.

hylotropy
  ماده‌گردی   
mâdegardi

Fr.: hylotropie   

Physical chemistry: The fact or condition of being → hylotropic.

hylotropic; → -tropy.

hyper-
  ۱) اَبَر-؛ ۲) هیپر-   
1) abar- (#); 2) hiper- (#)

Fr.: hyper-   

A prefix appearing in loanwords from Greek meaning:
1) "Over," like → super-, and sometimes implying:
2) "Excess higher than that denoted by super-;" e.g. → hypernova.

From Gk. hyper, preposition and adverb, "over, beyond, overmuch, above;" cognate with L. super- and Pers. abar-, as below.

1) Mid.Pers. abar; O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over."
2) hiper, loanword from Gk.

hyperbola
  هذلولی   
hozluli (#)

Fr.: hyperbole   

A two-branched open curve, a type of conic section, defined as the intersection between a right circular conical surface and a plane which cuts through both halves of the cone.

From Gk. hyperbole "excess, exaggeration" literally "a throwing beyond," from hyperballein "to throw over or beyond," from → hyper- "beyond" + bol-, nom. stem of ballein "to throw."

Hozluli, loanword from Ar.

hyperbolic
  هذلولی   
hozluli (#)

Fr.: hyperbolique   

Of or pertaining to a → hyperbola.

From hyperbol-, → hyperbola, + → -ic.

hyperbolic cosine
  کوسینوس ِ هذلولی   
kosinus-e hozluli

Fr.: cosinus hyperbolique   

A function, denoted cosh x, defined for all real values of x, by the relation: cosh x = (1/2) (ex + e-x).

hyperbolic; → cosine.

hyperbolic function
  کریایِ هذلولی   
karyâ-ye hozluli

Fr.: fonction hyperbolique   

Any of the six functions sinh, cosh, tanh, coth, csch, and sech that are related to the → hyperbola in the same way the → trigonometric functions relate to the → circle. Many of the formulae satisfied by the hyperbolic functions are similar to corresponding formulae for the trigonometric functions, except for + and - signs. For example: cosh2x - sinh2x = 1. See also: → hyperbolic cosine, → hyperbolic sine. Hyperbolic functions were first introduced by the Swiss mathematician Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777).

hyperbolic; → function.

hyperbolic orbit
  مدار ِ هذلولی   
madâr-e hozluli (#)

Fr.: orbite hyperbolique   

An orbit that is an open curve whose ends get wider apart at any rate between that of an ellipse and a straight line. Some comets' orbits become hyperbolic through the gravitational influence of a planet the comet passes near.

hyperbolic; → orbit.

hyperbolic sine
  سینوس ِ هذلولی   
sinus-e hozluli

Fr.: sinus hyperbolique   

A function, denoted cosh x, defined for all real values of x, by the relation: cosh x = (1/2) (ex - e-x).

hyperbolic; → sine.

hyperbolic space
  فضای ِ هذلولی   
fazâ-ye hozluli (#)

Fr.: espace hyperbolique   

A three-dimensional space whose geometry resembles that of a saddle-shaped surface and is said to have negative curvature.

hyperbolic; → space.

hyperboloid
  هذلولی‌وار   
hozlulivâr (#)

Fr.: hyperboloïde   

A surface or body obtained by rotating a hyperbola about its axis of symmetry.

Hyperboloid, from hyperbol(a) + → -oid a suffix meaning "resembling, like."

Hozlulivâr, from hozluli, → hyperbola, + -vâr a suffix of similarity.

hyperfine
  اَبَرنازک   
abar-nâzok

Fr.: hyperfine   

Extremely fine or thin, especially of a → spectral line split into two or more very thin components. → hyperfine structure; → hyperfine transition.

hyper-, → fine structure.

hyperfine structure
  ساختار ِ اَبَرنازک   
sâxtâr-e abar-nâzok (#)

Fr.: structure hyperfine   

In spectroscopy, the → splitting of a spectral line into a number of very thin components. It results from a small perturbation in the energy levels of atoms or molecules due to the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction arising from the interaction of the nuclear → magnetic moment with the → spin of the electron. It can be observed only at high spectral dispersion. → fine structure.

hyperfine; → structure.

hyperfine transition
  گذرش ِ اَبَرنازک   
gozareš-e abar-nâzok

Fr.: transition hyperfine   

An → atomic transition involving a → hyperfine structure.

hyperfine; → transition.

hypergalaxy
  اَبَرکهکشان، هیپرکهکشان   
abarkahkašân, hiperkahkašân

Fr.: hypergalaxie   

A system consisting of a dominant → spiral galaxy associated with → dwarf satellite galaxies and intergalactic matter. Examples in the → Local Group are our Galaxy and the → Andromeda galaxy.

hyper- + → galaxy.

hypergiant star
  ستاره‌ی ِ هیپرغول   
setâre-ye hiperqul

Fr.: hypergéante   

A high luminosity star with absolute visual magnitude around -10, about 106 times as luminous as the Sun. Hypergiant stars are evolved → massive stars belonging to the luminosity class Ia+ or Ia0. Their spectra show very broadened emission and absorption lines resulting from the high luminosity and low surface gravity which favor strong → stellar wind. See also → Humphreys-Davidson limit; → yellow hypergiant.

hyper-; → giant.

Hyperion (Saturn VII)
  هوپریون   
Huperion (#)

Fr.: Hypérion   

The sixteenth of → Saturn's known → natural satellites. It is shaped like a potato with dimensions of 410 x 260 x 220 km and has a bizarre porous, sponge-like appearance. Many of the sponge holes or craters have bright walls, which suggests an abundance of → water  → ice. The crater floors are mostly the areas of the lowest → albedo and greatest red coloration. This may be because the average temperature of roughly -180 °C might be close enough to a temperature that would cause → volatiles to → sublimate, leaving the darker materials accumulated on the crater floors. Hyperion is one of the largest bodies in the → Solar System known to be so irregular. Its density is so low that it might house a vast system of caverns inside. Hyperion rotates chaotically and revolves around Saturn at a mean distance of 1,481,100 km. It was discovered by two astronomers independently in 1848, the American William C. Bond (1789-1859) and the British William Lassell (1799-1880).

Hyperion, in Gk. mythology was the Titan god of light, one of the sons of Ouranos (Heaven) and Gaia (Earth), and the father of the lights of heaven, Eos the Dawn, Helios the Sun, and Selene the Moon.

hypermetropia
  دوربینی   
durbini (#)

Fr.: hypermétropie   

A condition of the eye that occurs when light rays entering the eye are focused behind the retina; also called farsightedness, hyperopia, long sight (opposed to → myopia).

From Gk. hupermetros "beyond measure," from → hyper- + metron "measure;" → meter + -opia a combining form denoting a condition of sight or of the visual organs hemeralopia; myopia.

Durbini "farsightedness," from dur "far" (Mid.Pers. dūr "far, distant, remote;" O.Pers. dūra- "far (in time or space)," dūraiy "afar, far away, far and wide;" Av. dūra-, dūirē "far," from dav- "to move away;" cf. Skt. dūrá- "far; distance (in space and time);" PIE base *deu- "to move forward, pass;" cf. Gk. den "for a long time," deros "lasting long") + bin- "to see" (present stem of didan; Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" PIE base *weid- "to know, to see") + -i noun suffix.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>