An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
grid
  شباک   
šabâk (#)

Fr.: grille   

1) A → grating of crossed bars; gridiron.
2) A → network of → horizontal and → perpendicular lines, uniformly spaced, for locating points on a map, chart, or aerial photograph by means of a system of coordinates.
3) Electricity: i) A metallic framework employed in a storage cell or battery for conducting the electric current and supporting the active material.
ii) A system of electrical distribution serving a large area, especially by means of high-tension lines.

Shortening of gridiron "a utensil consisting of parallel metal bars on which to broil meat or other food," from M.E. griderne, from gridel, from O.Fr. gredil, gridil, from L. craticula "gridiron, small griddle," diminutive of cratis "wickerwork."

Šabâk, from Laki šowâk "a net woven from goat fleece used for carrying chaff or fruits like melon," variants šâvâk (Lori), šavak (Nahâvand).

grinding
  سابش   
sâbeš

Fr.: ébauchage   

A first step in making a telescope mirror, which consists of rubbing the glass blank with hard tools (glass, tile, or metal) and abrasive grit to produce a concave form. → figuring; → polishing.

Grinding, verbal noun of grind, from O.E. grindan, forgrindan "destroy by crushing," from P.Gmc. *grindanan (cf. Du. grenden), from PIE *ghrendh- "crushing" (cf. L. frendere "to crush, grind;" Gk. khondros "granule, groats").

Sâbeš, verbal noun of sâbidan, variants sâyidan, pasâvidan "to touch" (Khotanese sauy- "to rub;" Sogdian ps'w- "to touch;" Proto-Iranian *sau- "to rub").

gripe
  گله   
gelé (#)

Fr.: doléance   

A minor → complaint.

M.E. gripen, from O.E. gripan; cognate with Du. grijpen, Ger. griefen.

Gelé, → complain.

grism
  گریسم   
grism (#)

Fr.: grism   

An optical dispersing device used in a spectrograph. It is a combination of a prism and a grating, in the sense that the grating is placed side by side to one surface of a small-angle prism.

Grism, from gr(ating) + (pr)ism.

grit
  شن   
šen (#)

Fr.: grain abrasif   

Abrasive particles or granules, classified into predetermined sizes, typically of Silicon Carbide or Aluminum Oxide, used between the mirror and tile tool to grind the glass.

Grit, from O.E. greot "sand, dust, earth, gravel," from P.Gmc. *greutan "tiny particles of crushed rock" (cf. O.S. griot; O.N. grjot "rock, stone;" Ger. Grieß "grit, sand"); PIE base *ghreu- "to rub, pound, crush."

Šen "sand, grit."

groin
  کشال، کشاله   
kašâl (#), kašâlé (#)

Fr.: aine   

Anatomy: The depression on either side of the front of the body between the thigh and the abdomen.

M.E. grynde "groin," originally "depression in the ground," from O.E. grynde "abyss," perhaps also "depression, hollow," related to → ground.

Kašâl, kašâlé, literally "side, edge, margin," cf. Dari Kermâni kašâr, Kermâni kešâl "side, edge," from kašidan "to draw, pull, trace, trail," → galaxy.

groma
  گروما   
gromâ

Fr.: groma   

An instrument composed of a vertical staff and a horizontal cross with a plumb line at the end of each arm. It was used in ancient Roman empire to survey straight lines, squares, and rectangles.

From L. groma, gruma, from Gk. → gnomon, possibly through Etruscan.

groove
  شیار   
šiyâr (#)

Fr.: trait, sillon   

grating groove.

Groove, from O.N. grod "pit," or M.Du. groeve "furrow, ditch," from P.Gmc. *grobo (cf. O.H.G. gruoba "ditch," Goth. groba "pit, cave," O.E. græf "ditch"), related to grave (n.).

Šiyâr "furrow, ploughed ground," from Av. karši-, karša- "furrow," karšuiiā "plowed (land)," related to Mod.Pers. kašidan/kešidan "to carry, draw, protract, trail, drag;" Mid.Pers. kešidan "to draw, pull;" from Av. karš- "to draw; to plow;" cf. Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plough," karṣū- "furrow, trench;" Gk. pelo, pelomai "to be in motion, to bustle;" PIE base kwels- "to plow."

ground
  ۱) زمین؛ ۲) زمینه   
1) zamin; 2) zaminé (#)

Fr.: sol, terrain   

1) The surface of the Earth; soil.
2) The foundation or basis on which a belief or action rests.

From O.E. grund "foundation, ground, surface of the earth," from P.Gmc. *grundus (cf. Du. grond, Ger. Grund "ground, soil, bottom").

1) Zamin, variant zami "earth, ground," from Mid.Pers. zamig "earth;" Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam; Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" and humus "the earth" (as in homo sapiens or homicide, humble, humus, exhume); PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth."
2) Zaminé, from zamin + nuance suffix .

ground state
  حالت ِ زمینه   
hâlat-e zaminé (#)

Fr.: état fondamental   

The lowest energy state of an atom, molecule, or ion, when all electrons are in their lowest possible energy levels, i.e. not excited.

ground; → state.

ground-based observation
  نپاهش از زمین   
nepâheš az zamin

Fr.: observation au sol   

An astronomical observation carried out using a telescope on Earth, as opposed to that from an orbiting satellite.

ground; based, adj. of base, from O.Fr. bas, from L. basis "foundation," from Gk. basis "step, pedestal," from bainein "to step;" → observation.

Nepâheš, → observation; az "from," → ex-; zamin, → ground.

group
  ۱) گروه؛ ۲) گروهاندن؛ گروهیدن   
1) goruh (#); 2) goruhândan; goruhidan

Fr.: 1) groupe; 2) grouper; se grouper   

1a) Any collection or assemblage of persons or things considered together or regarded as belonging together; e.g. → Local Group of galaxies.
1b) Math.: A set of elements a, b, c, ..., finite or infinite in number, with a rule for combining any two of them to form a "product," subject to the following four axioms: → closure axiom, → associative axiom, → identity axiom, and → inverse axiom.
2a) (v.tr.) To place or associate together in a group.
2b) (v.intr.) To be part of a group.

From Fr. groupe "cluster, group," from It. gruppo "cluster, packet, knot," likely from P.Gmc. *kruppa "round mass, lump."

Goruh "group," from Mid.Pers. grôh "group, crowd."

group theory
  نگره‌ی ِ گروه   
negare-ye goruh (#)

Fr.: théorie des groupes   

A branch of mathematics concerned with structures called → groups and the description of their properties. Group theory provides a powerful formal method of analyzing abstract and physical systems in which → symmetry is present. It has a very considerable use in physics, especially → quantum mechanics, notably in analyzing the → eigenstates of energy of a physical system.

group; → theory.

group velocity
  تندای ِ گروه   
tondâ-ye goruh

Fr.: vitesse de groupe   

The velocity at which the envelope of a → wave packet propagates, vgr = dω/dk, at k0 (the central value of k). The group velocity can be equal to, larger, or smaller than the → phase velocity.

group; → velocity.

grouping
  گروهش   
goruheš

Fr.: groupement   

The act or process of uniting into groups.
A collection of things assembled into a group.
The occurence of several astronomical objects, usually of the same category, in a region of the sky.

Verbal noun of → group.

grow
  روییدن، رستن   
ruyidan (#), rostan (#)

Fr.: croître   

To increase by natural development, as any living organism or part by assimilation of nutriment; increase in size or substance (Dictionary.com).

From M.E. growen, O.E. growan; cf. Du. groeien, O.H.G. grouwan; PIE base *ghre- "to grow, become green," from which is also derived grass.

Ruyidan, rostan "to grow," from Mid.Pers. rôditan, rustan "to grow;" Av. raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot," with fra- "to grow up, shoot forth;" cf. Skt. ruh- "to grow, develop, ascend, climb," rohati "grows," rudh- "to grow, sprout, shoot," rodhati "grows."

growth
  رویش، رست   
ruyeš (#), rost (#)

Fr.: croissance   

The act or process, or a manner of growing; development; gradual increase. → curve of growth; → grain growth.

Ruyeš, verbal noun of → grow; rost, past stem of ruyidan, → grow, used as verbal noun.

Grus
  دُرنا   
Dornâ (#)

Fr.: Grue   

The Crane. A constellation in the Southern Hemisphere , located at 22h 30m right ascension, -45° declination. Its brightest star, of magnitude 1.7 and spectral type B7. Abbreviation: Gru; genitive: Gruis

From L. grus "crane;" akin to Gk. geranos "crane;" Welsh garan; Lith. garnys "heron, stork;" O.E. cran; E. crane. Named by Johann Bayer in 1603.

Dornâ "crane," from Turkish, a bird of the family Gruidae.

guess
  ۱) هدس؛ ۲) هدسیدن، هدس‌زدن   
1) hads; 2) hadsidan, hads zadan

Fr.: 1) deviner; 2) conjecture   

1a) An opinion that one reaches or to which one commits oneself on the basis of probability alone or in the absence of any evidence whatever.
1b) The act of forming such an opinion.
2a) To arrive at or commit oneself to an opinion about (something) without having sufficient evidence to support the opinion fully.
2b) To estimate or conjecture about correctly (Dictionary.com).

M.E. gessen, perhaps from Scandinavian; cf. Sw., Dan., Norw. gissa, M.L.G. gissen, M.Du. gessen, related to verb get.

Hads, from Ar. Hads "intuition, conjecture, surmise."

guide
  ۱) راه‌بردن؛ ۲) راهبرد   
1) râh bordan; 2) râhbord

Fr.: 1) guider; 2) guidage   

1) To → control or direct the → motion or course of.
2) Something that directs the motion or points the way. → autoguider, → guide star, → guider, → lightguide, → waveguide.

M.E. giden (v.), from O.Fr. guider "to guide, lead," from Frankish *witan "show the way" (cf. Ger. weisen "to show, point out," wissen "to know;" O.E. witan "to see"). Cognate with Pers. bin- "to see" (present stem of didan "to see"); Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" PIE base *weid- "to know, to see."

Râh bordan "to guide, conduct," from râh "path, → way," + bordan "to carry, lead," → vector.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>