An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
pressure ionization
  یونش ِ فشاری   
yoneš-e fešâri

Fr.: ionisation par pression   

A physical state of dense matter in which the electrostatic field of one atom should influence a neighboring atom and hence disturb atomic levels. In extreme case, such as white dwarfs, electron clouds practically rub and electrons are ionized off the parent atoms.

pressure; → ionization.

pressure mode
  ترز ِ فشار، مد ِ ~   
tarz-e fešâr, mod-e ~

Fr.: mode pression   

Same as → p mode

pressure; → mode.

pressure scale height
  بلندی ِ مرپل ِ فشار   
bolandi-ye marpel-e fešâr

Fr.: hauteur d'échelle de pression   

A basic ingredient of the → mixing length theory that scales with the → mixing length. It is defined by the relation: HP = -dr/dln P = -Pdr/dP , where r is the height and P the pressure. See also → scale height.

pressure; → scale; → height.

previous
  پیشین   
pišin (#)

Fr.: précédent   

Occurring before something else in time or order.

From L. praevius "leading the way," from prae-, → pre- + via "way."

Pišin, from piš "before," → pre-.

previously
  پیشانه   
pišâné

Fr.: précédemment, auparavant   

Coming or occurring before something else; prior.

previous; → -ly.

Prevost's law of exchanges
  قانون ِ گهولش ِ په‌ره‌وُ   
qânun-e gahuleš-e Prévost

Fr.: loi des échanges de Prévost   

A statement concerned with thermodynamic heat exchange, according to which bodies in → thermal equilibrium are simultaneously absorbing and emitting radiant energy. A body radiates in the same way whether other bodies are present or not. Also called Prevost's theory of exchanges.

Named after Pierre Prévost (1751-1839), a Swiss philosopher and physicist, who, in 1791, put forward the statement; → law; → exchange.

prey
  ۱) چَویدن؛ ۲) چَواک   
1) cavidan; 2) cavâk

Fr.: 1) faire sa proie de; 2) proie   

1) To seize and devour prey, as an animal does.
2) An animal hunted or seized for food, especially by a carnivorous animal (Dictionary.com).

M.E. preye, from O.Fr. preie, from L. praeda "booty, plunder, game hunted;" ultimately from prehendere "to grasp, seize."

1) Cavidan, related to Khotanese cev- "to get, seize," Ossetic cævyn, cavd "to hit, to strike," Pers. câpidan "to plunder," cafsidan, caspidan "to stick; to plunder;" Proto-Ir. *cap- "to seize."
2) Cavâk, from cav- present stem of cavidan, as above, + -âk suffix denoting object of an action.

prey animal
  جانور ِ چَواک   
jânevar-e cavâk

Fr.: animal proie   

An animal that is hunted and killed by a → predator as food.

prey; → animal.

Priestley's rings
  حلقه‌های ِ پریستلی   
halqehâ-ye Priestley

Fr.: anneaux de Priestley   

The concentric colored rings formed by an electrical → spark when a → discharge takes place on a metallic plate.

Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), English chemist, author, and clergyman; → ring.

primary
  نخستان   
naxostân

Fr.: primaire, principal   

1) First or highest in rank or importance; chief; principal.
2) Abbreviation for → primary body, → primary star, or → primary mirror.

M.E., from L. primarius "of the first rank, principal," from primus "first."

Naxostân, from naxost, from Mid.Pers. naxust "the first," Parthian Mid.Pers. nxwšt, from naxu, Manichean Parthian nwx "beginning" + -ist superlative suffix, Av. -išta-, cf. Skt. -istha-, Gk. -istos, O.H.G. -isto, -osto, O.E. -st, -est, -ost.

primary body
  جسم ِ نخستان   
jesm-e naxostân

Fr.: corps principal   

The body that is being orbited; such as the → Sun in the → solar system. As regards → multiple star systems, the most massive, or → primary star. See also: → secondary body.

primary; → body.

primary cell
  پیل ِ نخستان   
pil-e noxostân

Fr.:   

A → cell in which the electrochemical action producing the current is not normally reversible. Such a cell cannot be recharged by an electric current. → secondary cell.

primary; → cell.

primary cosmic rays
  پرتوهای ِ کیهانی ِ نخستان   
partowhâ-ye keyhâni-ye naxostân

Fr.: rayons cosmiques primaires   

The → cosmic rays which arrive on the Earth's → atmosphere from the outer space. The primary cosmic rays are very high energy → protons and to a lesser extent heavier nuclei which rain upon the Earth from all diretions in the outer space. They contain about 90% protons, 7% → alpha particles and about 1% still heavier nuclei of amost all the atoms from Li to Ni ( → mass number< 60). See also: → secondary cosmic rays.

primary; → cosmic; → ray.

primary eclipse
  گرفت ِ نخستان   
gereft-e noxostân

Fr.: éclipse primaire   

Of a transiting → exoplanet, the event and the interval of time during which the planet passes in front of its host star. The planet occults a portion of the stellar disk, and a fraction of light from the star is seen after traversal through the atmosphere around the planet's limb. → secondary eclipse.

primary; → eclipse.

primary mirror
  آینه‌ی ِ نخستان   
âyene-ye noxostân

Fr.: miroir primaire   

In a → reflecting telescope, the first mirror that collects the light and focuses it to the → focal plane.

primary; → mirror.

primary rainbow
  رنگین‌کمان ِ نخستان   
rangin-kamân-e naxostân

Fr.: arc-en-ciel primaire   

The main rainbow that forms between about 40° and 42° from the → antisolar point (or about 50° from the → antisolar point), as viewed by the observer. The light path involves → refraction and a → single  → reflection inside the water → droplet. If the drops are large, 1 millimeter or more in diameter, red, green, and violet are bright but there is little blue.

As the droplets get smaller, red weakens.

Rainbows are not seen in midday since the whole 42° circle is below the horizon at most latitudes. So rainbows tend to be seen most in the later afternoon when a thundershower has passed and the Sun is illuminating from the west.

primary; → rainbow.

primary star
  ستاره‌ی ِ نخستان   
setâre-ye naxostân

Fr.: étoile principale   

In a → multiple star system, the most massive → component. In other words, the star nearest to the system's → center of garvity.

primary; → star .

prime
  نخست، نخستین، نخستی   
naxost, naxostin, naxosti

Fr.: premier   

1) Of the first importance; of the highest rank.
2) Same as → prime number.

M.E., from L. primarius "of the first rank, principal," from primus "first."

Naxost, naxostin, naxosti, from Mid.Pers. naxust "the first," Parthian Mid.Pers. nxwšt, from naxu, Manichean Parthian nwx "beginning" + -ist superlative suffix, Av. -išta-, cf. Skt. -istha-, Gk. -istos, O.H.G. -isto, -osto, O.E. -st, -est, -ost.

prime focus
  کانون ِ نخستی   
kânun-e naxosti

Fr.: foyer primaire   

The focal point of a large primary reflecting mirror. This focus actually falls at a point just within the upper structure of the telescope and provides a large field of view.

primary; → focus.

prime meridian
  نیمروزان ِ نخستی   
nimruzân-e noxosti

Fr.: méridien origine   

The meridian at which longitude is defined to be 0°. The meridian running through Greenwich.

primary; → meridian.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>