An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
giant magnetoresistance (GMR)
  مغنات-ایستادگی ِ کلان، ایستادگی ِ مغناتیسی ِ ~   
meqnât-istâdegi-ye kalân, istâdegi-ye meqnâtisi-ye ~

Fr.: magnétorésistance géante   

A quantum mechanical phenomenon where the resistance of certain materials drops dramatically upon application of a magnetic field in certain structures composed of alternating layers of magnetic and nonmagnetic metals. The basis of the GMR is the dependence of the electrical resistivity of electrons in a magnetic metal on the direction of the electron spin, either parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic moment of the layers. The 2007 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to the French physicist Albert Fert (1938-) and German physicist Peter Grünberg (1939-) for the discovery of GMR.

giant; magneto- combining form of → magnet; → resistance.

giant molecular cloud (GMC)
  ابر ِ مولکولی ِ غولپیکر   
abr-e molekuli-ye qulpeykar (#)

Fr.: nuage moléculaire géant   

A massive complex of → interstellar gas and → dust, consisting mostly of → molecular hydrogen, that typically stretches over 150 light-years and contains several hundred thousand → solar masses. Giant molecular clouds are the principal sites of star formation. → molecular cloud.

giant; → molecular; → cloud.

giant planet
  سیاره‌ی ِ غولپیکر   
sayyâre-ye qulpeykar (#)

Fr.: planète géante   

A planet much more massive than Earth. The solar system has four giant planets: → Jupiter, → Saturn, → Uranus, and → Neptune.

giant; → planet.

giant star
  ستاره‌ی ِ غولپیکر   
setâre-ye qulpeykar (#)

Fr.: étoile géante   

A high-luminosity star that has evolved off the → main sequence and lies above the main sequence on the → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. A member of the → giant branch. → red giant.

giant; → planet.

gibbous
  کوژ، کوژماه   
kuž, kužmâh (#)

Fr.: gibbeux   

An adjective applied to the phase of the Moon (or a planet) when it is more than half full, but less than entirely full.

From L.L. gibbous "hunchbacked," from L. gibbus "hump, hunch;" cf. Mod.Pers. kaž "crooked, bent, being aside;" Skt. kubja- "hump-backed, crooked;" Pali kujja- "bent;" Lith. kupra "hump."

Kuž "humped," Mid.Pers. kôf "hill, mountain; hump" (Mod.Pers. kuh, "mountain"), kôfik "humpbacked," O.Pers. kaufa-, Av. kaofa- "mountain;" mâh, → moon.

Gibbs canonical distribution
  واباژش ِ هنجاروار ِ گیبس   
vâbâžeš-e hanjârvâr-e Gibbs

Fr.: distribution canonique de Gibbs   

The probability distribution of the various possible states of a certain → quasi-closed subsystem.

Gibbs free energy; → canonical; → distribution.

Gibbs free energy
  کاروژ ِ آزاد ِ گیبس   
kâruž-e âzâd-e Gibbs

Fr.: énergie libre de Gibbs   

The total energy needed to create a thermodynamic system minus the energy provided the environment. It is defined by G = U + PV -TS, where U is the → internal energy, T the → absolute temperature, S the → entropy, P the → pressure, and V is the final → volume. Same as the → Gibbs function and → thermodynamic potential.

Named after Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903), an American physicist who played an important part in the foundation of analytical thermodynamics; → free; → energy.

Gibbs function
  کریای ِ گیبس   
karyâ-ye Gibbs

Fr.: fonction de Gibbs   

Same as → Gibbs free energy.

Named after Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903), an American physicist who played an important part in the foundation of analytical thermodynamics; → function.

giga- (G)
  گیگا-   
gigâ- (#)

Fr.: giga-   

A prefix that is used to represent 109 in the SI system.

From Gk. gigas, → giant.

gigahertz (GHz)
  گیگاهرتز   
gigâhertz (#)

Fr.: gigahertz   

A unit of → frequency, equal to 106 Hz.

giga-; → hertz.

gimbal(s)
  دوقاب   
doqâb (#)

Fr.: monture à la Cardan, cardan   

1) A support component of a gyroscope, which allows the axis to move freely.
2) A mechanical mounting frame having two mutually perpendicular axes of rotation.

Gimbal, alteration of gemel "twin," from M.E., gemelles, from O.Fr. gemeles (Fr. jumeau, jumelle), from L. gemellus, diminutive of geminus "twin;" cf. Pers. Kermâni dialect jomoli "twin;" → Gemini.

Doqâb, from do "two" (Mid.Pers. do; Av. dva-; cf. Skt. dvi-; Gk. duo; L. duo; O.E. twa; Ger. zwei) + qâb "frame," from Turkish.

Gl 229B
     
Gl 229B

Fr.: Gl 229B   

The prototype of → T dwarfs discovered by Nakajima et al. (1995, Nature 378, 463). This → brown dwarf lies 21.8 → light-years away and orbits a primary star of type M1 V every about 40 years. It has a temperature of less than 1,200 K, and a mass approximately 20-50 times that of Jupiter. Its luminosity is about 2 x 10 -6 that of the Sun.

Gl, referring to the → Gliese catalogue.

glacier
  یخزار   
yaxzâr (#)

Fr.: glacier   

An extended mass of ice formed from snow falling and accumulating over the years and moving very slowly, either descending from high mountains, as in valley glaciers, or moving outward from centers of accumulation, as in continental glaciers (Dictionary.com).

From Fr. glacier, from O.Fr. glace "ice," from V.L. glacia, from L. glacies "ice," probably from PIE root *gel-, → cold.

Yaxzâr, from yax, → ice, + -zâr suffix denoting profusion and abundance, as in šurezâr "infertile, salty ground; nitrous earth," xoškzâr "arid land," kârzâr "a field of battle; combat," marqzâr "a place abounding with the grass," and so forth.

glacier calving
  گوگش ِ یخزار   
gugeš-e yaxzâr

Fr.: vêlage de glacier   

The breaking off of chunks of ice at the terminus, or end, of a glacier. Ice breaks because the forward motion of a glacier makes the terminus unstable. Ice or glacier calving is the formal name for the birth of an → iceberg.

glacier; → calve.

glare
  خیرتاو   
xirtâv

Fr.: lumière éblouissante   

1) A very harsh, bright, dazzling light.
2) A type of → light pollution which is a blinding light within the field of vision. It compromises security and safety.

M.E. glaren; cognate with M.Du., M.L.G. glaren; akin to glass.

Xirtâv, literally "dazzling light," from xir, from xiré konandé, "dazzling," from xiré "much, many; obstinate; perverse; unwilling;" + tâv, variant tâb, tâbidan "to shine," → luminous.

glass
  شیشه   
šišé (#)

Fr.: verre   

A noncrystalline, inorganic mixture of various metallic oxides fused by heating with glassifiers such as silica, or boric or phosphoric oxides.

From O.E. glæs, from W.Gmc. *glasam (M.Du. glas, Ger. Glas), from PIE base *gel-/*ghel- "to shine, glitter."

Šišé "glass;" Mid.Pers. šišag.

glass blank
  گرده‌ی ِ شیشه   
gerde-ye šišé

Fr.: disque de verre   

A mass of glass ready to be shaped into a telescope mirror. Same as → glass disk.

glass; blank, from O.Fr. blanc "white, shining," from Frank. *blank "white, gleaming," of W.Gmc. origin (cf. O.E. blanca "white horse"), from P.Gmc. *blangkaz, from PIE *bhleg- "to shine."

Gerdé, → disk; šišéglass.

glass disk
  گرده‌ی ِ شیشه   
gerde-ye šišé

Fr.: disque de verre   

Same as glass blank.

glass; → disk.

glass filter
  پالایه‌ی ِ شیشه‌ای   
pâlâye-ye šiše-yi

Fr.: filtre de verre   

A filter used in → broad-band photometry. The → bandwidth ranges usually between 30 and 100 nm.

glass; → filter.

glaze
  هَسَر   
hasar (#)

Fr.: verglas, givre   

A coating of ice, generally clear and smooth, formed on exposed objects by the freezing of a film of supercooled water deposited by rain, drizzle, fog, or possibly condensed from supercooled water vapor. Also called glaze ice, verglas, and (especially British) glazed frost.

Glaze, from → glass.

Hasar "ice," probably related to Av. isu- "icy, chilly," aexa- "ice, frost," Mod.Pers. yax "ice;" cf. O.E. is "ice," from P.Gmc. *isa-; Du. ijs, Ger. Eis, E. ice.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>