An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
term
  ترم   
tarm

Fr.: terme   

1) A word or group of words that has a precise meaning and expresses a definite idea, used in a particular science, art, or profession. See also → terminology; → determine.
2) Math.: In an expression, a number or a letter standing alone; or a combination of such representing a unit, e.g.: a, b, 5, 4ab, 3a/b.
3) Physics: A set of atomic states having a definite → configuration and → spin and → orbital angular momentum  → quantum numbers. In the → LS coupling scheme, the entity 2S+1LJ, in which 2S+1 is called the → multiplicity of the term.
4) Logic: The → subject or → predicate of a → categorical proposition. See also → syllogism.
5) In → first-order logic, an → individual constant, → individual variable, or → function.

M.E. terme, from O.Fr., from L. terminus "boundary, limit, end; boundary stone or marker," variant termen "boundary, end;" cognate with Gk. termon "limit, boundary;" Skt. tarman "the top of the sacrificial (usually tripod) post; passage;" Irish tearmann "a refuge, sanctuary, asylum;" this Irish word would point to the sacredness of the sacrificial post in primitive IE customs; Hittite tarma- "peg, plug, nail;" PIE base *ter- "to cross;" cf. Pers. tarm, târem, tarâ-, Av. tar- "to cross over," as below.

Tarm, variant târem "boundary, limit," more specifically "a wooden palisade to exclude people from a garden," also "a wooden building of a circular form with an arched roof" (cf. Irish tearmann, as above), Tabari talm "pole, stick" (that marks a boundary), Tâleši/Tâti talmi "pole, stick," Garkâni taram "lever," Lori, Laki tarm "poles fastened together in order to carry a corpse to the village cemetery;" O.Pers./Av. tar- "to cross over," O.Pers. vi-tar- "to go across," Mid.Pers. vitartan "to pass," Mod.Pers. gozar, gozaštan "to pass, cross;" cf. Skt. tarman "the top of the sacrificial post; passage," tar- "to pass (through), overcome," tárati "crosses, passes," tirás "through, across, beyond;" see also → trans-.

terminal
  ۱) پایانی؛ ۲) پایانه   
1) pâyâni; 2) pâyâné

Fr.: terminal   

1) Forming or found at the extreme point or limit of something, or relating to the very end of something.
2) Computers: An input/output device having a keyboard for communicating with a computer and usually a display.

M.E., from L. terminalis "pertaining to a boundary or end, final," from terminus "end, boundary line," → term.

Pâyâni, pâyâné, noun and adj. from pâyân "end, extremity; limit, boundary," from pâ(y) "foot; step" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad- "foot;" cf. Skt. pat; Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes, genitive pedis; P.Gmc. *fot; E. foot; Ger. Fuss; Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-).

terminal age main sequence (TAMS)
  رشته‌ی ِ فریست با سن ِ پایانی   
rešte-ye farist bâ senn-e pâyâni

Fr.: séquence principale d'âge terminal   

The locus of stars on the → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram that are at the point of exhausting hydrogen in their cores. TAMS forms the upper luminosity boundary of the → main sequence strip. See also → zero age main sequence (ZAMS).

terminal; → age; → main; → sequence.

terminal velocity
  تندای ِ پایانی   
tondâ-ye pâyâni

Fr.: vitesse terminale   

1) The constant maximum velocity reached by a body falling under gravity through a liquid or gas, especially the atmosphere. The body ceases to accelerate downward because the force of gravity is equal to the opposing force of resistance by the medium.
2) The velocity acquired at the end of a body's motion.
3) The velocity attained by → stellar wind at very large distance from the star. The material that escapes from the outer layers of the stars is accelerated outward from a small radial velocity at the → photosphere of the star, to some high velocity at large distance from the star. The theory of → radiation-driven winds predicts that the terminal velocity scales with the → escape velocity as: v  ≅ 2-3 vesc. The winds of hot → O stars experience fast acceleration and reach 80% of their terminal velocity near the star (some 3 R*). The terminal velocity ranges from about 10 km s-1 for a cool → supergiant star to 3000 km s-1 for a luminous hot star. Terminal velocities are quite accurately measured from the violet trough of saturated → P Cygni line profiles in the ultraviolet (mainly N V λ1239, C IV λ1548, Si IV λ1394).

terminal; → velocity.

termination shock
  تش ِ پایانی، شوک ِ ~   
toš-e pâyâni, šok-e ~

Fr.: choc terminal   

A → shock wave inside the → heliopause where the → supersonic → solar wind abruptly slows from an average speed of 500 km s-1 to → subsonic and becomes denser and hotter.

Termination, verbal noun from terminate, from → term; → shock.

Toš, šok, → shock; pâyâni, → terminal.

terminator
  شید-مرز   
šid-marz

Fr.: terminateur   

The dividing line between the illuminated and the un-illuminated part of the Moon's or a planet's disk.

From L. terminator, from terminare, from terminusterm.

Šid-marz, literally "light boundary," from šid "light, sunlight" (Mid.Pers. šêt "shining, radiant, bright;" Av. xšaēta- "shining, brilliant, splendid, excellent") + marz "boundary, limit" (Mid.Pers. marz "boundary;" Av. marəza- "border, district," marəz- "to rub, wipe;" Mod.Pers. parmâs "contact, touching" (→ contact), mâl-, mâlidan "to rub;" PIE base *merg- "boundary, border;" cf. L. margo "edge" (Fr. marge "margin"); P.Gmc. *marko; Ger. Mark; E. mark, margin).

terminology
  ترم‌شناسی   
tarmšenâsi

Fr.: terminologie   

1) The system of terms belonging to a particular science, art, specialized subject, or social group. Terminology is the way of naming concepts, which generally precede the corresponding terms. See also → lexicology.
2) The theory or science dealing with the relations between → terms and → concepts.

A hybrid word coined first in Fr., before 1764, by Yves Marie André (1675-1764), a Jesuit mathematician and philosopher, from termin, from L. terminus, → term, + epenthetic vowel -o- + Gk. -logia, → -logy. Recoined or borrowed in Ger. Terminologie in 1786, by C.G. Schütz of Jena; first appeared in E. in 1801.

From tarm, → term, + -šenâsi, → -logy.

terraform
  زمین‌دیسیدن   
ziman-disidan

Fr.: terraformer   

To alter the environment of a planet or moon in a → terraforming process in order to make it habitable for life forms.

Probably taken from noun terraform, from L. terra "earth," → terrestrial; → form.

From zamin, → earth, + disidan "to → form."

terraforming
  زمین‌دیسش   
zamin-diseš

Fr.: terraformation   

The hypothetical process of altering the environment (atmosphere, temperature, surface topography, or ecology) of another planet or moon to improve the chances of survival of an indigenous biology or to allow habitation by terrestrial life forms. See also → ecopoiesis.

Verbal noun of → terraform. The term first appeared in a science fiction novel, Seetee Shock (1949) by Jack Williamson, an American science fiction writer; but the actual concept pre-dates this work.

terrestrial
  زمینی   
zamini (#)

Fr.: terrestre   

Pertaining to, consisting of, or representing the Earth as distinct from other planets.

From L. terrestris "earthly," from terra "earth," literally "dry land" (as opposed to "sea"); from PIE base *ters- "to dry" (cf. Pers. tešné "thirsty;" Mid.Pers. tašnak "thirsty;" Av. taršu- "dry," taršna- "thirst;" Skt. trsta- "dry," tars- "to be thirsty;" Gk. teresesthai "to become or be dry," L. torrere "to dry up, roast," Goth. þaursus "dry, barren," O.H.G. derren "to make dry," durst "thirst;" Ger. dürr "arid;" O.E. þurstig "thirsty").

Zamini adj. of zamin, variant zami "earth, floor, land;" Mid.Pers. zamig; Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam- "the ground, earth;" Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" (as in homo sapiens, homicide, humble, humus, exhume), humus "the earth;" O.Russ. zemi "land, earth;" PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth".

Terrestrial Dynamical Time
  زمان ِ توانیک ِ زمینی   
zamân-e tavânik-e zamini

Fr.: temps dynamique terrestre   

A uniform atomic time scale for apparent geocentric ephemerides defined by a 1979 IAU resolution, which replaced Ephemeris Time. TDT is independent of the variable rotation of the Earth, and the length of the tropical year is defined in days of 86,400 seconds of international atomic time. In 1991 it was replaced by Terrestrial Time.

terrestrial; → dynamical; → time.

terrestrial gravitational constant
  پایای ِ گرانشی زمینی   
pâyâ-ye gerâneši-ye zamini

Fr.: constante gravitationnelle terrestre   

A parameter representing the product of the → gravitational constant by the Earth's mass. It is 3.987 x 1014 m3s-2 or 3.987 x 105 km3s-2.

terrestrial; → gravitational; → constant.

terrestrial planets
  سیاره‌های ِ زمینی   
sayyârehâ-ye zamini

Fr.: planètes terrestres   

The four innermost planets in the solar system, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. They are called terrestrial because they have a compact, rocky surface like the Earth's. The planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars have significant atmospheres while Mercury has almost none. These planets are approximately the same size, with the Earth the largest. They are considerably denser than the Jovian planets, ranging from a specific gravity of 4 for Mars to 5.5 for the Earth.

terrestrial; → planet.

Terrestrial Time
  زمان ِ زمینی   
zamân-e zimini

Fr.: temps terrestre   

The modern astronomical standard for the passage of time on the surface of the Earth. It is the → coordinate time scale consistent with the theory of general relativity for an observer on the surface of the Earth. TT was renamed from Terrestrial Dynamical Time (TDT) in 1991. The fundamental unit of TT is the day of 86,400 SI seconds. It is related to the International Atomic Time by the relation: TDT = TAI + 32.184 sec.

terrestrial; → time.

tertiary
  ۱، ۲، ۳) سوُمان؛ ۳) دوران ِ سوم   
1, 2, 3) sevoman; 3) dowrân-e sevom (#)

Fr.: tertiarie   

1) Third in order, rank, level, stage, formation, etc.
2) Chem.: Being or containing a carbon atom having bonds to three other carbon atoms.
3) Geology: (usually with capital initial) A term formerly used to distinguish a major period of → geologic time, from the end of the → Cretaceous period about 65 million years ago to the start of the Quaternary period about 1.6 millions years ago. The International Commission on Stratigraphy no longer sustains this term as part of the formal stratigraphic nomenclature. Instead, the → Paleogene and → Neogene periods are recommended as the primary subdivisions of the Cenozoic era.

From L. tertius, → third; → period.

tesla (T)
  تسلا   
teslâ (#)

Fr.: tesla   

The unit of → magnetic induction flux density in the SI system. It is the induction of a field in which each meter of conductor with a current of one → ampere and arranged perpendicular to the direction of the vector of induction is acted upon by a force of one → newton. 1 tesla = 1 → weber/m2 = 104gauss.

Named after Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), American physicist, electrical engineer, and inventor, born in Smiljan, Lika, which was then part of the Austo-Hungarian Empire, region of Croatia.

test
  آزمون   
âzmun (#)

Fr.: test   

A procedure by which the presence, quality, or genuineness of anything is determined.

M.E. test, originally "a small vessel for refining or assaying metals," from O.Fr. test, from L. testum "earthen pot," related to testa "piece of burned clay, earthen pot, shell," related to texere "to weave;" → technique.

Âzmun, from âzmudan, âzmây- "to try, experiment, test;" Mid.Pers. uzmudan, ôzmutan "to test, try, prove;" from O.Pers./Av. *uz-mây-, from uz-, → ex-, + mť(y)- "to measure;" from PIE *me- "measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra "measure;" Gk. metra "lot, portion;" L. metri "to measure."

test mass
  جرم ِ آزمون   
jerm-e âzmun

Fr.: test masse   

Any of a pair of identical 1.96 kg gold-platinum cubes measuring 4.6 cm on a side that are planned to be used in the → eLISA experiment to detect → gravitational waves. The test masses will be released in → free fall in the the → LISA Pathfinder spacecraft. The aim is to test methods and techniques that will be used in the eLISA experiment to detect gravitational waves. Even in space there are forces capable of disturbing the cubes, including the radiation and wind from the Sun. Hence the test masses need be isolated from all of these non-gravitational influences. To do so, LISA Pathfinder continually measures their positions and manoeuvres around them with microthrusters to avoid ever touching them.

test; → mass

test of significance
  آزمون ِ نشاناری   
âzmun-e nešânâri

Fr.: test de significativité   

Same as → significance testing and → rule of decision.

test; → significance.

test particle
  ذره‌ی ِ آزمون   
zarre-ye âzmun

Fr.: particule-test   

In → plasma physics, → fluid dynamics, and → self-gravitating systems, a particle or ensemble of particles which are affected by the evolution of the rest of the system, but do not affect the rest of the system. The test particle concept is used, e.g., for revealing a flow, describing the path of fluid elements, and so on.

test; → particle.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>