An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
peripheral response
  پاسخ ِ پیرابَری   
pâsox-e pirâbari

Fr.: réponse périphérique   

In a charge-coupled device, the detection of charge collected by the transport register rather than by the image-sensing elements.

peripheral; → response.

peripheral vision
  دید ِ پیرابَری   
did-e pirâbari

Fr.: vision périphérique   

In optics, the ability to see over large angles of view.

peripheral; → vision.

periphery
  پیرابَر   
pirâbar

Fr.: périphérie   

The external surface or boundary of a body. The circumference or perimeter of any closed figure.

From, M.E., from O.Fr. periferie, from L.L. peripheria, from Gk. peripheria "circumference, outer surface," literally "a carrying around," from peripheres "rounded, moving round," peripherein "to carry or move round," from → peri- "round about" + pherein "to carry;" cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, lead," as below.

Pirâbar, from pirâ-, → peri-, + bar present stem of bordan "to carry, lead" (Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, L. fero "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry").

periscope
  پیرابین، پیرانما   
pirâbin, pirânemâ (#)

Fr.: périscope   

An optical instrument for viewing objects which are above the eye-level of the observer, or are placed so that direct vision is blocked.

peri-; + → -scope.

permafrost
  ماندبشم   
mândbašm

Fr.: pergélisol   

Layer of soil or rock, at some depth beneath the surface, in which the temperature has been continuously below 0°C from a few to several thousands of years. It exists where summer heating fails to reach the base of the layer of frozen ground.

From perma(nent) + → frost.

Mândbašm, from mând, → permanent, + bašm, → frost.

permanent
  ماندگار   
mândegâr (#)

Fr.: permanent   

Lasting or remaining without essential change.

Permanent, from M.Fr. permanent, from L. permanentem "remaining," pr.p. of permanere "endure, continue, stay to the end," from per- "through" + manere "stay," cognate with Pers. mândan, as below; → gas.

permanent gas
  گاز ِ ماندگار   
gâz-e mândegâr

Fr.: gaz permanent   

Gas which cannot be liquefied by pressure alone; gas above its critical temperature.

permanent; → gas.

permanent magnet
  آهنربای ِ ماندگار   
âhanrobâ-ye mândegâr

Fr.: aimant permanent   

A piece of magnetic material which, having been → magnetized, retains a substantial proportion of its → magnetization indefinitely. In permanent magnets the magnetic field is generated by the internal structure of the material itself. Atoms and crystals constituting materials are made up of electrons and atomic nuclei. Both the nucleus and the electrons themselves act like little magnets. There is also a magnetic field generated by the orbits of the electrons as they move about the nucleus. So the magnetic fields of permanent magnets are the sums of the nuclear spins, the electron spins and the orbits of the electrons themselves. In many materials, the magnetic fields are pointing in all sorts of random directions and cancel each other out and there is no permanent magnetism. But in certain materials, called → ferromagnets, all the spins and the orbits of the electrons will line up, causing the materials to become magnetic. Many permanent magnets are created by exposing the magnetic material to a very strong external magnetic field. Once the external magnetic field is removed, the treated magnetic material is now converted into a permanent magnet. Overheating a permanent magnet causes the magnet's atoms to vibrate violently and disrupt the alignment of the atomic domains and their dipoles. Once cooled, the domains will not realign as before on their own and will structurally become a temporary magnet (MagLab Dictionary).

permanent; → magnet.

permanent memory
  برم ِ ماندگار   
barm-e mândegâr

Fr.: mémoire permanente   

Storage capacity which does not depend on a continuous supply of power, e.g. disks, magnetic tapes, etc.

permanent; → memory.

permeability
  تراوایی   
tarâvâyi (#)

Fr.: perméabilité   

The degree of → magnetization of a material that responds linearly to an applied magnetic field. → magnetic permeability.

From permeable, from L. permeabilis "that can be passed through, passable," from L. permeare "to pass through," from per- "through" + meare "to pass," from PIE base *mei- "to change; to go, move."

Tarâvâyi quality noun of tarâvâ "permeable," from tarâvidan "to exude, trickle, ooze; to drop," probably from Proto-Iranian *tra-vaxš-. The first component *tra- "across, over, beyond," → trans-. The second component *vaxš-, cf. Av. uxš-/vaxš- "to sprinkle," present tense stem uxš-; cf. Skt. uks- "to sprinkle, moisten," uksati "spinkles, wets;" Gk. hygros "wet, moist, fluid;" L. uvidus "watery, humid, damp." Tarâvidan may be a back formation from *tarâvaš.

permission
  پرزامش   
parzâmeš

Fr.: permission   

The act of permitting. Authorization granted to do something.

verbal noun of → permit; → -tion.

permit
  پرزامیدن   
parzâmidan

Fr.: permettre   

To allow to be done or occur.

From M.Fr. permetre, from L. permittere "give up, allow, allow to pass through," from per- "through;" (from PIE base *per- "through, across, beyond;" cf. Gk. peri "around, about, beyond;" O.Pers. pariy "around, about," Av. pairi "around, over;" Skt. pari; Indo-Iranian *pari- "around;" Mod.Pers. par-, pirâ- "around, about") + mittere "let go, send."

Parzâmidan, literally "to allow to go through," infinitive of parzâm, from par- "through," from O.Pers. pariy "around, about," Av. pairi "around, over," cognet with L. per-, as above + zâm stem of Mid.Pers. zâmenidan "to let go, lead, send," Mod.Pers. gâm "step, pace," âmadan "to come;" O.Pers./Av. gam- "to come; to go," Av. jamaiti "goes;" cf. Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step," L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come," E. come; PIE base *gwem- "to go, come."

permitted
  پرزامیده   
parzâmidé

Fr.: permis   

Allowed. → permitted line; → permitted transition.

Past participle of → permit.

permitted line
  خط ِ پرزامیده   
xatt-e parzâmidé

Fr.: raie permise   

An ordinary spectral line emitted by atoms undergoing energy transitions that are allowed by the selection rules of quantum mechanics. → forbidden lines.

permitted; → line.

permitted transition
  گذرش ِ پرزامیده   
gozareš-e parzâmidé

Fr.: transition permise   

A transition between two quantum mechanical states that does not violate the quantum mechanical selection rules.

permitted; → transition.

permittivity
  پرزامندگی   
parzâmandegi

Fr.: permittivité   

A measure of the ability of a material to transmit (or "permit") an electric field. Permittivity is defined as the ratio of the flux density produced by an electric field in a given dielectric to the flux density produced by that field in a vacuum. In → SI units, permittivity is measured in → farads per meter. The constant ε0 is known as the permittivity of free space; its value is about 8.854 x 10-12 F/m.

State or quality noun from → permit.

permutation
  پرموتش، جایگشت   
permuteš, jâygašt

Fr.: permutation   

Math.: A rearrangement of the elements of a set in a particular order. The number of permutations of n objects is equal to n! (→ factorial n). For example, there are 24 permutations of letters A, B, C, and D (4! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4). The number of permutations of n objects taken r at a time is denoted by nPr and equals n! / (n - r)!. For example, the number of permutation of A, B, C, and D taken two at a time is 12. If n objects are of k different kinds, with r1 alike of one kind, permutations of n objects equals n! / r1! r2! ... rk!, where r1 + r2 + ... rk = n.

Verbal noun of → permute.

Permuteš, verbal noun of → permute.
Jâygašt , from "place" (from Mid.Pers. giyag "place;" O.Pers. ā-vahana- "place, village;" Av. vah- "to dwell, stay," vanhaiti "he dwells, stays;" Skt. vásati "he dwells;" Gk. aesa (nukta) "to pass (the night);" Ossetic wat "room; bed; place;" Tokharian B wäs- "to stay, wait;" PIE base ues- "to stay, live, spend the night") + gašt past tense of gaštan, gardidan "to turn, to change" (Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend").

permute
  پرموتیدن   
permutidan

Fr.: permuter   

M.E., from L. permutare "to change throughout," from per- "through" + mutare "to change," from PIE base *mei- "to change, go, move;" cf. Av. miθô "inverted, false," miθaoxta- "wrong spoken;" Skt. methati "changes, alternates, joins, meets," mith- "to alternate, meet," mithás "opposite, in opposition;" L. meare "to go, pass," mutuus "done in exchange;" Goth. maidjan "to change;" E. prefix mis- (in mistake).

Permutidan, from permute, as above.

perpendicular
  پالار   
pâlâr

Fr.: perpendiculaire   

A line or plane at right angles to another line or plane. Two curves are said to be perpendicular if their tangent lines are mutually perpendicular. → normal; → vertical

From M.E. perpendiculer(e), from O.Fr. perpendiculiere, from L. perpendicularis "vertical, as a plumb line," from perpendiculum "plumb line," from perpendere "balance carefully," from per- "thoroughly" + pendere "to weigh, to hang."

Pâlâr "pillar, column, main beam."

perpendicular axis theorem
  فربین ِ آسه‌ها‌ی ِ پالار   
farbin-e âsehâ-ye pâlâr

Fr.: théorème des axes perpendiculaires   

The → moment of inertia of a plane object (→ lamina) about an axis perpendicular to the plane is equal to the sum of the moments of inertia about any two perpendicular axes in the plane. Thus if x and y axes are in the plane, Iz = Ix + Iy.

perpendicular; → axis; → theorem.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>