An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
Littrow prism
  منشور ِ لیترو   
manšur-e Littrow

Fr.: prisme de Littrow   

A prism having angles of 30, 60, and 90°, which uses the same face for input and dispersed radiation. The beam is reflected at the face opposite to the 60° angle because it is coated to be highly reflecting. A beam entering at the → Brewster angle undergoes minimum deviation and hence maximum dispersion. Littrow prisms are used in laser cavities to fine tune lasers by selection of wavelength.

Joseph Johann Littrow (1781-1840), Austrian astronomer; → prism.

Lloyd's mirror
  آینه‌ی ِ لوید   
âyene-ye Lloyd (#)

Fr.: miroir de Lloyd   

An optical arrangement in which light from a source is allowed to fall on a plane mirror at → grazing incidence. The light directly coming from the source interferes with the light reflected from the mirror forming an → interference pattern. See also → Fresnel's biprism, → Fresnel's mirrors.

After the Irish physicist Humphry Lloyd (1800-1881); → mirror.

load
  ۱) بار؛ ۲) بار کردن   
1) bâr; 2) bâr kardan (#)

Fr.: 1) charge; 2) charger   

1) Something that is borne or carried.
2) Computers: To bring (a program or data) into main storage from external or auxiliary storage.
To place (an input/output medium) into an appropriate device, as by inserting a disk into a disk drive. See also: → download, → upload, → overload.

From M.E. lode, originally the same word as lode, from O.E. lāad "way, course, carrying;" cf. O.N. leith "way, route," O.H.G. leita "procession."

Bâr kardan "to load," composite verb from bâr "load, charhe, burden," (Mid.Pers. bâr, from O.Pers./Av. base bar- "to bear, carry;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" L. brutus "heavy, dull, stupid, brutish;" Skt. bhara- "burden, load," bharati "he carries;" Gk. baros "weight;" Mod.Pers. gerân "heavy;" Skt. guru; L. gravis; PIE *gwere- "heavy," *bher- "carry, give birth") + kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").

loading
  بارکرد   
bârkard

Fr.: chargement   

The act of a person or thing that loads. See also: → download, → upload.

Verbal noun of → load.

lobate scarp
  تنده‌ی ِ لاپه‌ای   
tonde-ye lâpe-yi

Fr.: escarpe lobée   

A surface feature on a planet or satellite in the form of a line of cliffs. Lobate scarps are formed when planetary or lunar mantle cools down and contracts inside. The loss of volume squeezes portions of the outer crust together. Eventually, the crust breaks and some of it is pushed up, creating long cliffs that look like wrinkles. Lunar scarps are generally tens of kilometers long and less than 100 m high. They have formed during the last billion years.

Lobate "having the form of a → lobe;" → scarp.

lobe
  لپ   
lap (#)

Fr.: lobe   

General: A roundish projection that is part of a larger structure.
Radioastronomy: In an antenna pattern, a region of local maximum in the emitted intensity. The strongest lobe is in the pointing direction of a directional antenna and is called the main lobe.
Quasar: One of the two lobe-like structures well apart from the central source, observed in radio images of some quasars. Same as radio lobe.

From M.L. lobus, from L.L. lobus "hull, husk, pod," from Gk. lobos "lobe of the ear, vegetable pod," probably related to leberis "husk of fruits;" from PIE base *lep- "to peel, flay."

Lap "lobe," variants lâp, lâb "piece, big piece, big cut," lappé "split pea; any of the two parts of a timber split through the length," maybe cognate with Gk. lobos, as above. Alternatively, related to Pers. las "loose," PIE *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart" (cf. Gk. lyein "to loosen, untie, slacken," lysus "a loosening;" L. luere "to loose, release;" → analysis).

lobe pattern
  ا ُلگوی ِ لپ‌ها   
olgu-ye laphâ

Fr.: fonction de lobe   

The configuration of the response lobes of a radiotelescope.

lobe; → pattern.

lobe-dominated quasar
  کو‌آسار ِ لپ چیره   
kuasâr-e lap ciré

Fr.: quasar à lobes dominants   

A → radio-loud quasar in which the lobes dominate the whole emission. It has been conjectured that this phenomenon is an → orientation effect. If the → jet is close to the plane of the sky, the lobes will dominate. See also → core-dominated quasar.

lobe; → dominate; → quasar.

local
  محلی   
mahali (#)

Fr.: local   

Pertaining to, characteristic of, or restricted to a particular place or particular places.
See also:
local arm, → Local Bubble, → Local Group, → local inertial frame, → local interstellar cloud, → local Lorentz invariance, → local maximum, → local meridian, → local oscillator, → local position invariance, → local sidereal time, → local standard of res, → Local Supercluster, → local thermodynamic equilibrium, → local time, → local Universe, → Local Volume, → localization, → localize, → non-local thermodynamic equilibrium.

From O.Fr. local, from L.L. localis "pertaining to a place," from L. locus "place."

Mahali, related to mahal "place, locality," from Ar.

Local Arm
  بازوی ِ محلی   
bâzu-ye mahali

Fr.: bras local   

One of the → spiral arms of the → Milky Way Galaxy which contains our → solar system. Same as → Orion Arm.

local; → arm.

Local Bubble
  تنگل ِ محلی، حباب ِ ~   
tangol-e mahali, hobâb-e ~

Fr.: Bulle locale   

A region of low density in the → interstellar medium surrounding the → Solar System. It extends at least 300 → light-years in most directions and encompasses the stars of the immediate → solar neighborhood. The Local Bubble contains a hot, million-degree ionized hydrogen gas that emits in → X-rays. → Neutral hydrogen has a density approximately one tenth of the average for the interstellar medium in the Milky Way. The bubble is thought to be a result of the → shock waves from → supernovae sweeping through the region within the past two to four million years.

local; → bubble.

Local Group
  گروه ِ محلی   
goruh-e mahali (#)

Fr.: Groupe local   

A small → galaxy cluster of about 50 galaxies to which our → Milky Way galaxy belongs. The Local Group occupies a volume of space nearly 10 million → light-years across centered somewhere between the → Andromeda Galaxy (M31) and the Milky Way, which are the dominant galaxies of the group; Andromeda being the principal member. Both of these galaxies exhibit spiral structures, and each is attended by a large family of satellite → dwarf galaxies. The Local Group also includes a third spiral galaxy known as → Triangulum (M33), which is bound to Andromeda. The remaining members span a range of → Hubble classification types from dwarf spheroidal to Irr to Sb and Sc and cover a factor of 10 in → metallicity. The total mass of the Local Group is estimated to be about 2 × 1012 solar masses, although this value is still uncertain to within a factor of about 2. The velocities of the individual galaxies of the Local Group are not particularly high. Therefore no member is believed to be able to escape the group, which is thus considered to be gravitationally → bound. Another remarkable member of the Group is → IC 10.

local; → group.

local inertial frame
  چارچوب ِ لختی‌ناک ِ محلی، ~ لختی‌مند ِ ~   
cârcub-e laxtnâk-e mahali, ~ laxtimand-e ~

Fr.: référentiel inertiel local   

A coordinate system or frame of reference defined in the vicinity of the Earth in which Newton's first law of motion is valid; that is, a non-rotating and non-accelerating reference frame.

local; → inertial; → time.

local interstellar cloud
  ابر ِ اندر-اختری ِ محلی   
abr-e andar-axtari-ye mahali

Fr.: nuage interstellaire local   

An → interstellar cloud that surrounds the → heliosphere.

local; → interstellar; → cloud.

local Lorentz invariance
  ناورتایی ِ لورنتز ِ محلی   
nâvartâyi-ye Lorentz-e mahali

Fr.: invariance de Lorentz locale   

Einstein equivalence principle.

local; → Lorentz; → invariance.

local maximum
  بیشینه‌ی ِ محلی   
bišine-ye mahali

Fr.: maximum local   

The point x = c in an → interval where the value of the → function  f(y) is larger than the value anywhere else in that interval. In other words, f(c) ≥ f(x) for all x in the interval.

local; → maximum.

local meridian
  نیمروزان ِ محلی   
nimruzân-e mahali

Fr.: méridien local   

The meridian through any particular place, serving as the reference for local time, in contrast to the Greenwich meridian.

local; → meridian.

local minimum
  کمینه‌ی ِ محلی   
kamine-ye mahali

Fr.: minimum local   

The point x = c in an → interval where the value of the → function  f(y) is smaller than the value anywhere else in that interval. In other words, f(c) ≤ f(x) for all x in the interval.

local; → minimum.

local oscillator
  نوشگر ِ محلی   
navešgar-e mahali (#)

Fr.: oscillateur local   

The oscillator in a heterodyne or superheterodyne radio receiver which produces the radio frequency oscillations with which the received wave is combined.

local; → oscillator.

local position invariance
  ناورتایی ِ نهش ِ محلی   
nâvartâyi-ye neheš-e mahali

Fr.: invariance de position locale   

Einstein equivalence principle.

local; → position; → invariance.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>