An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
jet stream
  رابه‌ی ِ شانی   
râbe-ye šâni

Fr.: jet stream   

Meteo.: An area of relatively strong winds that are concentrated in a narrow band in the upper troposphere of the middle latitudes and subtropical regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

jet; → stream.

Jewish calendar
  گاهشمار ِ یهود   
gâhšomâr-e yahud (#)

Fr.: calendrier juif   

Same as → Hebrew calendar

Jewish, adj. of jew, from M.E. jewe, giu, gyu, ju, from O.Fr. juiu, juieu, gyu, from L.L. judeus, from L. juaeus, from Gk. ioudaios, from Aramaic yehudhai, from Heb. yəhudhi "Jew," from Yəhudah "Judah," literally "celebrated," name of Jacob's fourth son and of the tribe descended from him; → calendar.

Gâhšomârcalendar; yahud, from Ar., from Heb., as above.

JHK system
  راژمان ِ JHK   
râžmân-e JHK

Fr.: système JHK   

1) Three → atmospheric windows in the → near infrared portion of the → electromagnetic spectrum at 1.25 (J), 1.65 (H), and 2.20 (K) μm.
2) An extension of Johnson's → photometric system into near infrared using filters corresponding to the atmospheric windows J (1.25 μm), H (1.65 μm), and K (2.20 μm), with → bandwidths 0.3 μm, 0.4 μm, and 0.6 μm respectively.

Letters of alphabet, used conventionally; → system.

Jilin meteorite
  شهاب‌سنگ ِ جیلین   
šahâbsang-e jilin (#)

Fr.: météorite de Jilin   

The biggest meteorite ever witnessed falling and the largest stone meteorite known. It happened near Jilin, an industrial port city located northeastern China, on March 8, 1976. Of the four tons of fragments of the type H5 chondrite recovered, one piece weighs 1.774 tons and measures about 100 x 80 x 50 cm. The meteorite exploded in the sky and produced a shower covering an area of more than 500 square kilometers.

Jilin, from the name of the Chinese city, known also as Chi-lin City or Kirin City. → meteorite.

jitter
  جَست-و-جَه   
jastojah

Fr.: scintillement, vacillement   

Short term random variations either in amplitude or phase of a radio signal.

Jitter, may be variant of chitter "tremble, shiver," from M.E. chiteren "to twitter, chatter."

Jastojah, from jast and jah past and present stems of jahidan "to jump, leap, spring forward; to shake or tremble," from Mid.Pers. jastan, jahidan "to jump," figuratively "to happen, occur;" Av. yaēš-, yas- "to boil;" cf. Skt. yas-, yásyati "to boil, to heat; to make effort" + -o- euphonic infix, on the model of kandokâv, oftoxiz, and so on.

jitter mode
  مد ِ جَست-و-جَه   
mod-e jastojah

Fr.:   

A mode of observation in which a series of short exposures are used to enhance the final image quality through appropriate data processing. The first exposure is assumed to be centered on the point of interest; the following ones are slightly offset from the first position with separations not larger than a reasonably small fraction of the detector size. The offsets should be optimally distributed on the sky in order to maximize the chances of being able to filter out the sky background.

jitter; → mode.

jj coupling
  جفتش ِ jj، جفسری ِ ~   
jofteš-e jj, jafsari-ye ~

Fr.: couplage jj   

A coupling scheme of electronic → spin angular momenta and → orbital angular momenta for heavy atoms (generally Z > 30), where the spin and orbital angular momenta of individual electrons couple strongly, and therefore the → LS coupling scheme does not apply. The coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum of each electron is much stronger than the coupling between different electrons. Therefore, the total angular momentum, ji, for the i-th electron is obtained by combining li and si and then coupling these j's together to give the total angular momentum J = Σi ji. In the jj coupling scheme the total orbital angular momentum quantum number, L, and the total spin angular momentum number, S, are not specified.

j referring to the symbol of the total angular momentum for individual electrons; → coupling.

Johnson-Nyquist noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ جانسون-نیکوییست   
nufe-ye Johnson-Nyquist (#)

Fr.: bruit de Johnson-Nyquist   

The random fluctuation of voltage across a resistor caused by the thermal excitation of electrons within it, and the dissipation of power associated with these fluctuations. More generally, an intrinsic noise generated by thermal agitation of electrons by all bodies whose temperature is above 0 K. Also called → thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise.

Named after John Bertrand Johnson (1887-1970) and Harry Nyquist (1889-1976) Swedish-born American engineers and physicists, who did important work on thermal noise and information theory. → noise.

Jordan matrix
  ماتریس ِ ژوردان   
mâtris-e Jordan (#)

Fr.: matrice de Jordan   

A square matrix with a constant value λ (nonzero) along the diagonal, 1's on the superdiagonal, and all other elements 0.

Named after Marie Ennemond Camille Jordan (1838-1922), French mathematician who pioneered group theory, wrote on the theory of linear differential equations, and on the theory of functions, which he applied to the curve which bears his name. → matrix.

Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory
  نگره‌ی ِ یوردان-برانز-دایک   
negare-ye Jordan-Brans-Dicke

Fr.: théorie de Jordan-Brans-Dicke   

A relativistic theory of gravitation which involves a → scalar field in addition to the → metric (→ tensor field) used in rarr; general relativity. It obeys the → equivalence principle, but tries at the same time to comply with → Mach's principle owing to possible spatial and temporal variations of the → gravitational constant, which is inversely proportional to the scalar field. The theory uses a new dimensionless parameter to determine the discrepancy between its predictions and those of general relativity. So far there is no firm indication of its validity. Same as → scalar-tensor theory.

Named after the creators, Carl Brans (1935-) and Robert Dicke (1916-1997), who presented the theory in 1961, based on the initial work of Pascual Jordan (1902-1980); → theory.

Josephson effect
  ا ُسکر ِ جوزفسون   
oskar-e Josephson

Fr.: effet Josephson   

A quantum mechanical → tunnel effect allowing the flow of a continuous current across two weakly coupled → superconductors which are separated by a very thin insulating barrier.

Named after the British physicist Brian David Josephson, who predicted the existence of the effect in 1962; → effect.

Josephson junction
  جوهه‌ی ِ جوزفسون   
juhe-ye Josephson (#)

Fr.: jonction Josephson   

A type of electronic circuit involving → Josephson effect, capable of switching at very high speeds when operated at temperatures approaching → absolute zero.

Josephson effect; → junction.

joule (J)
  ژول   
joule (#)

Fr.: joule   

A unit of → energy in the → International System of Units equal to the → work performed by one → newton over a distance of 1 → meter. 1 J is equivalent to 107 ergs = 1 Watt second = 2.78 × 10-7 kWh = 0.2389 calories = 6.24 × 1018 eV.

In honor of the English physicist James Prescott Joule (1818-1889), who established that the various forms of energy (mechanical, electrical, and heat) are basically the same and can be changed, one into another.

Joule is in Pers. pronounced as žul, loaned from the Fr. rendering of the E. name.

Joule effect
  اسکر ِ ژول   
oskar-e Joule

Fr.: effet Joule   

A → conductor becomes heated by the passage of an electric current through it due to the → resistance of the conductor. Same as → Ohmic dissipation.

joule; → effect.

Joule's constant
  پایای ِ ژول   
pâyâ-ye Joule (#)

Fr.: constante de Joule   

The proportional relationship of mechanical energy to thermal energy, equal to 4.184 joules per calorie. Also called mechanical equivalent of heat.

joule; → constant.

Joule-Thomson effect
  اسکر ِ ژول-تامسون   
oskar-e Joule-Thomson

Fr.: effet Joule-Thomson   

The change in the temperature of a gas in the → throttling process.

Joule; → Thomson; → effect.

Jovian
  هرمزی   
Hormozi

Fr.: jovien   

Of or pertaining to the → planet  → Jupiter.

From L. Jovius "Jupiter," Roman god of the sky, cognate with deus "god;" Gk. Zeus "supreme god;" Pers. div "devil, demon" (Mid.Pers. dêw; O.Pers. daiva- "evil god, demon;" Av. daēva- "evil spirit, false god;" Skt. deva-; PIE base *deiwos "god," from *dei- "to gleam, to shine").

Hormozi, related to Hormoz, → Jupiter.

Jovian planet
  سیاره‌ی ِ هرمزی   
sayyâre-ye Hormozi

Fr.: planète jovienne   

A planet that does not have a well-defined → solid  → crust, such as any of the four Solar System outer, gaseous planets: → Jupiter, → Saturn, → Uranus, and → Neptune.

Jovian; → planet.

Joy's law
  قانون ِ جوی   
qânun-e Joy

Fr.: loi de Joy   

Sunspot pairs or groups are tilted with the → leader spots closer to the equator than the → follower spots. The tilt of bipolar sunspot pairs increases with latitude.

Alfred Harrison Joy (1882-1973), an American astronomer; → law.

judge
  ۱) دادرس، داور؛ ۲) داوری کردن   
1) dâdras (#), dâvar; 2) dâvari kardan

Fr.: 1) juge; 2) juger   

1a) A public officer authorized to hear and decide cases in a court of law; a magistrate charged with the administration of justice.
1b) A person qualified to pass a critical judgment.
2a) To pass legal judgment on; pass sentence on (a person).
2b) to form a judgment or opinion of; decide upon critically (Dictionary.com).

M.E. jugen, from Anglo-Fr. juger, O.Fr. jugier "to form an opinion about; make a decision," also "to try and pronounce sentence upon (someone) in a court," from Anglo-Fr juger, O.Fr. jugier "to judge, pronounce judgment; pass an opinion on," from L. iudicare "to judge, to examine officially; form an opinion upon; pronounce judgment," from iudicem "a judge," a compound of ius "right, law," → just, + root of dicere "to say."

Dâdras "justice administrator," from dâd, → justice, + ras present stem and agent noun of rasidan "to attain, to arrive, to mature," → access.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>