An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
isotropic Universe
  گیتی ِ ایزوگرد، ~ ِ همسان‌گرد   
giti-ye izogard, ~ hamsângard (#)

Fr.: Univers isotrope   

A Universe having observed properties that appear identical in every direction.

isotropic; → universe.

isotropy
  ایزوگردی، هم‌سان‌گردی   
izogardi, hamsângardi (#)

Fr.: isotropie   

The property by which physical properties are equal along all directions. → anisotropy.

Isotropy, noun of → isotropic.

issue
  ۱) برونای؛ ۲) بروناییدن   
1) borunây; 2) borunâyidan

Fr.: issue, question, problème   

1a) A result or outcome of something.
1b) The action of flowing or coming out.
1c) Each of a regular series of publications.
1d) An important topic or problem for debate or discussion.
2) Formally send out or make known (OxfordDictionaries.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. issue "a way out, a going out, exit; final event," from L. exire "to go out, go forth; become public; flow, pour forth," from → ex- "out," + ire "to go,"

Borunây, literally "what comes out, exits," from borun, → out, + ây- present stem of âmadan "to come, arrive, become," → precession.

item
  یوتر   
yutar

Fr.: article, objet, point, ordre de jour   

1) A distinct part in an enumeration, account, collection, or set.
2) An object of attention, concern, or interest.
3) A separate piece of news or information.

From M.E. item, from L. item ("also; in the same manner"), from a L. usage in lists, where the first entry would begin in primis ("firstly") and the other entries with item ("also, moreover").

Yutar, from Sogd. yûtar "one of several," from ēw-tar, from ēw "→ one" + -tar distinction suffix.

itemize
  یوتریدن   
yutaridan

Fr.: détailler, spécifier   

1) To present as a list of items.
2) To list the items of.

item; → -ize.

iterate
  ایتریدن   
itaridan

Fr.: itérer   

1) To utter or to do something over again or repeatedly. → repeat.
2) Math.: → iteration.

Iterate "to do again, repeat," back-formation from iteration, from L. iterationem (nom. iteratio) "repetition," noun of action from iterare "to do again, repeat," from iterum "again, for the second time;" cf. Skt. itara- "the other (of the two), another."

Itaridan, from L. iter(um), Skt. itar(a-), as above, and Pers. dialects Kâšâni (Voništun) târ "the other;" Kurd. tir "the other" + -idan Pers. infinitive suffix.

iteration
  ایترش   
itareš

Fr.: itération   

A computational process involving a succession of approximations, which consists of repeating the operation by inputting the outcome of each preceding operation to improve the final result until a desired accuracy is achieved. Compare → repetition.

Verbal noun of → iterate.

iterative method
  روش ِ ایترشی   
raveš-e itareši

Fr.: méthode itérative   

A method of computation in mathematics using → iteration.

Iterative, characterized by or involving → iteration; → method.

Izar (ε Boötis)
  ایزار   
Izâr

Fr.: Izar   

A bright giant star in the constellation → Boötes lying 210 light-years away. It is a close double consisting of K0 and A0 dwarfs of magnitudes 2.5 and 4.6.

From Ar. Al-Izâr (الازار) "a cloth worn round the loins and passed between the legs," Ar. rendering of the Herdsman's skirt; → Boötes.

Jablonski diagram
  نمودار ِ یابلونسکی   
nemudâr-e Jablonski

Fr.: diagram de Jablonski   

An energy schematic representing the → electronic states of a → molecule and the → transitions between them. The vertical axis shows energies whereas → energy states are grouped horizontally according to their spin → multiplicity. Radiation-less transitions are symbolized by usual arrows, while → radiative transitions are represented by wavy arrows. The vibrational ground states of each electronic state are indicated with thick lines and the higher → vibrational states with thinner lines.

Named after Aleksander Jablonski (1898-1980), a Polish physicist who was an expert in the field of luminescence and atomic optics; → diagram.

Jacobi integral
  درستال ِ یاکوبی   
dorostâl-e Jacobi

Fr.: intégrale de Jacobi   

The integral admitted by the equations of a body of infinitesimal mass moving under the → gravitational attractions of two massive bodies, which move in circles about their → center of gravity. The Jacobi integral is the only known conserved quantity for the circular → restricted three-body problem. In the co-rotating system it is expressed by the equation: (1/2) (x·2 + y·2 + z·2) = U - CJ, where the dotted coordinates represent velocities, U is potential energy, and CJ the constant of integration (→ zero-velocity surface). The Jacobi integral has been used for two different purposes: 1) to construct surfaces of zero velocity which limit the regions of space in which the small body, under given initial conditions, can move, and 2) to derive a criterion (→ Tisserand's parameter) for re-identification of a → comet whose orbit has suffered severe perturbations by a planet. Also known as Jacobi constant.

Named after Karl Gustav Jacobi (1804-1851), a German mathematician who did important work on elliptic functions, partial differential equations, and mechanics; → integral.

Jacobian
  یاکوبی   
Jacobi

Fr.: jacobien   

Jacobian determinant, → Jacobian matrix.

Named after Karl Gustav Jacobi (1804-1851), a German mathematician who did important work on elliptic functions, partial differential equations, and mechanics. The "Jacobian" first appeared in an 1815 paper of the French mathematician Augustin Louis Cauchy (1789-1857), but Jacobi did write a detailed memoir about it in 1841.

Jacobian determinant
  آترمگر ِ یاکوبی   
âtarmgar-e Jacobi

Fr.: déterminant jacobien   

The determinant of a → Jacobian matrix formed by the n2 → partial derivative s of n functions of n variables.

Jacobian; → determinant.

Jacobian matrix
  ماتریس ِ یاکوبی   
mâtris-e Jacobi

Fr.: matrice jacobienne   

In → vector calculus, the matrix of all → first-order partial derivatives of a vector-valued → function.

Jacobian; → matrix.

Jalali calendar
  گاهشمار ِ جلالی   
gâhšomâr-e Jalâli (#)

Fr.: calendrier jalali   

An Iranian solar calendar, based on two successive passages of the Sun through the true → vernal equinox. It results from a reform undertaken by a group of astronomers led by Omar Khayyam (A.D. 1048-1131). The current → Iranian calendar is an improved version of the Jalali calendar.

Jalali, from the name of the ruler Jalâleddin Malek Šâh of the Saljuqid dynasty, who ordered the reform; → calendar.

James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)
  دوربین ِ فضایی ِ جیمز وب، تلسکوپ ~ ~ ~   
durbin-e fazâyi-ye James Webb, teleskop ~ ~ ~

Fr.: Télescope spatial James Webb   

A large, infrared space telescope with a mirror 6.55 m in diameter, scheduled for launch in 2018. JWST's instruments will work primarily in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum, with some capability in the visible range (0.6 to 28 μm). The scheduled instruments are Near IR Camera (NIRCam, field of 2.2 x 4.4 arcmin, wavelength range 0.6-5 μm), Near IR Spectrograph (NIRSpec, 3.5 x 3.5 arcmin, 0.6-5 μm, resolving powers of ~ 100, ~1000, and ~3000), Mid IR Instrument (MIRI, 1.4 x 1.9 arcmin, 5-27 μm, R ~ 3000), and Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS, 2.3 x 2.3 arcmin, 0.6-5 μm, R ~ 100). The successor to the → Hubble Space Telescope will be placed in an orbit about 1.5 million km from the Earth, at the → Lagrangian point L2. The JWST project is a → NASA-led international collaboration with the → European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency. The scientific goals of JWST can be grouped under four broad topics: first light after the Big Bang; galaxy formation; birth of stars and protoplanetary systems; and planetary systems and the origins of life.

Named in honor of James E. Webb (1906-1992), who headed NASA from 1961 to 1968, overseeing all the manned launches in the Mercury through Gemini programs, until before the first manned Apollo flight; → space; → telescope.

jansky (Jy)
  جنسکی   
jansky (#)

Fr.: jansky   

The unit of → radio flux density in → radio astronomy, equivalent to 10-26watts per square meter per → hertz.

Named in 1973 by the International Astronomical Union in honor of Karl Guthe Jansky (1905-1950), an American engineer of Czech descent who first identified radio waves from beyond the Solar System.

Janus
  یانوس   
Yânus (#)

Fr.: Janus   

The sixth of Saturn's known satellites. With a mean diameter of about 178 km it orbits Saturn at a distance of 150,000 km. Discovered by the French astronomer Audouin Dollfus (1924-) in 1966.

Janus was the god of gates and doorways in Roman mythology. He was also thought to represent beginnings, hence he lent his name to January, the first month of the year. He was depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions.

jasper
  یشم   
yašm (#)

Fr.: jaspe   

A colored form of natural silica, SiO2, which is a precious stone.

M.E. jaspe, jaspre, from M.Fr., O.Fr. jaspe, from L. iaspidem (nominative iaspis), from Gk. iaspis "jasper," via an Oriental language, probably an Eastern Iranian language, see below.

Yašm, variants, yasp, yasb, yašf "jasper;" Sogd. iešp "jasper," iešpênê "of jasper, crystalline."

Jeans
  جینز   
Jeans

Fr.: Jeans   

Named after Sir James Hopwood Jeans (1877-1946), English mathematical physicist, astrophysicist, and popularizer of science. He made important contributions to theoretical astrophysics, especially to the theory of stellar formation.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>