An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

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jurisdiction
  دادبخشان   
dâdbaxšân

Fr.: juridiction   

1) The right, power, or authority to administer justice by hearing and determining controversies.
2) The extent or range of judicial, law enforcement, or other authority.
3) The territory over which authority is exercised (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. juridiccion and directly from L. iurisdictionem "administration of justice, jurisdiction," from ius "right, law," → just, + dictio "a saying; extent or range of administrative power."

Dâdbaxšâ, from dâd, → justice, + baxš "division; donor, distributor, divider," from baxšidan "to divide, distribute, grant," → division, + -ân suffix of attribution and nuance

jurisprudence
  دادشناخت   
dâdšenâxt

Fr.: jurisprudence   

1) The science or philosophy of law.
2) A body or system of laws.
3) Civil Law: Decisions of courts, especially of reviewing tribunals (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from Fr. jurisprudence and directly from L.L. iurisprudentia "the science of law," from iuris "of right, of law" + prudentia "knowledge, a foreseeing, foresight, sagacity."

Dâdšenâxt, literally "science of justice," from dâd, → justice, + šenâxt "knowledge, science," → -logy.

jurist
  دادشناس   
dâdšenâs

Fr.: juriste   

A person versed in the law, as a judge, lawyer, or scholar.

M.E., from M.Fr. juriste, from M.L. iurista "jurist," from L. ius "law," → just.

Dâdšenâs, literally "knower of justice," → jurisprudence.

just
  دادمند، راست، درست   
dâdmand, râst (#), dorost (#)

Fr.: juste   

1) Guided by truth, reason, justice, and fairness.
2) Done or made according to principle; equitable; proper.
3) Based on right; rightful; lawful (Dictionary.com).

M.E. juste, from O.Fr. juste "just, righteous," from L. iustus "upright, equitable," from ius "right," especially "legal right, law," from O.L. ious, perhaps literally "sacred formula."

Dâdmand, from dâd "law, → justice."
Râst, → right.
Dorost "whole, complete, right," → integral.

justice
  داد، دادمندی، دادگری، دادگستری   
dâd, dâmandi, dâdgari, dâdgostari

Fr.: justice   

1) The quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness.
2) The moral principle determining just conduct.
3) The administering of deserved punishment or reward (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. justice "justice, legal rights, jurisdiction," from L. iustitia "righteousness, equity," from iustus "upright, → just."

Dâd "justice, law" from Mid.Pers. dâd "law, justice, scriptures with legal content;" related to Mid.- and Mod.Pers. daheš "creation," dâdan "to give;" Av. dā- "to place upon, give;" → datum.
Dâdmandi noun from dâmand, → just.
Dâdgari "administration of justice," from dâdgar, literally "just doer," "an administrator of justice," from dâd + -gar, → -or.
Dâdgostari, from Dâdgostar, literally "justice spreader," with gostar, from gostardan "to spread, → expand."

justification
  راستاورد   
râstâvard

Fr.: justification   

1) A reason, fact, circumstance, or explanation that justifies or defends. What is offered as grounds for believing an assertion.
2) An act of justifying.

Verbal noun of → justify.

Râstâvard, from râst "right, true; just, upright, straight" (Mid.Pers. râst "true, straight, direct;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right; PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule") + âvard past stem of âvardan "to bring; to adduce, bring forward in argument or as evidence" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").

justify
  راستاورد کردن، راستاوردن   
râstâvard kardan, râstâvardan

Fr.: justifier   

1) To show (a claim, statement, act, etc.) to be right, reasonable, or proper.
2) To defend or uphold as warranted or well-grounded.
3) To adjust (a line of type) to fill a line of constant width.

Justify, from O.Fr. justifier "to show (something) to be just or right; to administer justice," from L. justificare "act justly toward, make just," from justificus "dealing justly, righteous," from justus "just, upright, equitable," from jus (gen. juris) "right," from O.Latin ious, from PIE base *yewes- (cf. Av. yaož-da- "to purify ritually, to revitalize;" Skt. yos- "(long) life" + root of facere "to do" (from PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do;" cf. Mod.Pers. dâdan "to give;" O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives; puts;" Skt. dadáti "puts, places;" Hitt. dai- "to place;" Gk. tithenai "to put, set, place;" Lith. deti "to put;" Czech diti, Pol. dziac', Rus. det' "to hide," delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do").

Râstâvard kardan, râstâvardan, infinitives of râstâvard, → justification.

K corona
  تاج ِ K   
tâj-e K

Fr.: couronne K   

The inner part of the → solar corona which extends to about two solar radii. It is due to the → Thomson scattering of light from the → photosphere by the free electrons in the corona. The K corona exhibits a → linearly polarized continuous spectrum. The high speeds of the scattering electrons (on the average 10,000 km s-1 for a temperature of 2 million K) smear out the → Fraunhofer lines except the → H and K lines.

K from Ger. Kontinuum, → continuum; → corona.

K correction
  ارشایش ِ K   
aršâyeš-e K

Fr.: correction K   

A → color index correction applied to the photometric magnitudes and colors of a distant galaxy to compensate for the "reddening" of the galaxy due to → cosmological redshift. K correction is intended to derive the magnitudes in the → rest frame of the galaxy. Typically it is given as K(z) = az + bz2, where a and b depend on galaxy types. Conversely, one may deduce the redshift of a galaxy by its colors and a K-correction model.

The term K correction, probably stems from the K-term used by C. W. Wirtz (1918, Astron. Nachr. 206, 109), where K stands for Konstante, the German word for constant. The K-term was a constant offset in the redshift applied to diffuse nebulae in that epoch (source: A. L. Kinney, 1996, ApJ 467, 38); → correction.

K star
  ستاره‌ی ِ K   
setâre-ye K (#)

Fr.: étoile de type K   

An orange-red star of → spectral type K with a surface temperature of about 3600-5000 K. The spectra of K stars are dominated by the H and K lines of calcium and lines of neutral iron and titanium, with molecular bands due to cyanogen (CN) and titanium dioxide (TiO). Examples are → Arcturus and → Aldebaran.

K the letter of alphabet; → star.

K-T event
  رویداد ِ K-T   
ruydâd-e K-T (#)

Fr.: événement K-T   

Same as the → Cretaceous-Tertiary event.

K, representing the "→ Cretaceous period," and T the "→ Tertiary;" → event.

K2 mission
  گسیلان ِ K2   
gosilân-e K2

Fr.: mission K2   

A follow-up mission of the → Kepler satellite funded by → NASA. K2 provides an opportunity to continue Kepler's observations in the field of → exoplanets and expand its role into new astrophysical observations by assigning to Kepler new mission.

K, short for → Kepler spacecraft; 2, for second → mission.

Kaiser effect
  اسکر ِ کیزر   
oskar-e Kaiser

Fr.: effet de Kaiser   

The observed peculiar velocities of galaxies in the → redshift space of → galaxy clusters when the galaxies undergo → infall toward a central mass. This → redshift space distortion differs from the → fingers of God in that the peculiar velocities are not random, but correspond to the coherent falling of galaxies toward the central mass. See also → peculiar velocity.

Kaiser, N., 1987, MNRAS 227, 1; → effect.

Kant-Laplace hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ کانت-لاپلاس   
engâre-ye Kant-Laplace

Fr.: hypothèse de Kant-Laplace   

The hypothesis of the origin of the solar system proposed first by Kant (1755) and later by Laplace (1796). According to this hypothesis, the solar system began as a nebula of tenuous gas. Particles collided and gradually, under the influence of gravitation, the condensing gas took the form of a disk. Larger bodies formed, moving in circular orbits around the central condensation (the Sun).

Named after the German prominent philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) and the French great mathematician, physicist, and astronomer Pierre-Simon Marquis de Laplace (1749-1827); → hypothesis.

kaon
  کاءون   
kâon

Fr.: kaon   

Any of a group of four short-lived → mesons distinguished by a → quantum number called → strangeness. Also called K meson and denoted K. They are positive, negative, or neutral and have a mass of about 495 MeV/c (about 970 times that of an → electron).

Kaon, from ka (for the letter K) + (mes)on, → meson.

kappa mechanism
  ساز-و-کار ِ کاپا   
sâzokâr-e κ

Fr.: mécanisme κ   

A process based on the effects of → opacity (κ) that drives the → pulsations of many types of variable stars. Consider a layer of material within a star and suppose that it undergoes inward contraction. This inward motion tends to compress the layer and increase the density. Therefore the layer becomes more opaque (See also → partial ionization zone). If a certain amount of flux comes from the deeper layers it gets stuck in the high κ region. The energy accumulates and heat builds up beneath it. The pressure rises below the layer, pushing it outward. The layer expands as it moves outward, cools and becomes more transparent to radiation. Energy can now escape from below the layer, and pressure beneath the layer diminishes. The layer falls inward and the cycle repeats. The κ mechanism is believed to account for the pulsations of several star families, including → Delta Scuti stars, → Beta Cephei variables, → Cepheids, and → RR Lyrae stars (See Baker & Kippenhahn, 1962, Zeitschrift für Astrophysik 54, 114). Same as κ effect and → valve mechanism. See also → gamma mechanism.

κ, the Gk. letter which denotes opacity; → mechanism.

Kardashev scale
  مرپل ِ کارداشف   
marpel-e Kardashev

Fr.: échelle de Kardashev   

A way of measuring a civilization's technological advancement based upon how much usable energy it has at its disposal. The scale was originally designed in 1964 by the Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev (who was looking for signs of extraterrestrial life within cosmic signals). It has three base classes, each with an energy disposal level: Type I, Type II, and Type III. Type I designates a civilization that is capable of controlling the total energy of its home planet (1016 watts). Type II is an interstellar civilization, capable of harnessing the total energy output of a star (1026 W). And Type III represents a galactic civilization, capable of inhabiting and harnessing the energy of an entire galaxy (1036 W). The scale has since been expanded by another four. Type 0 is civilization that harnesses the energy of its home planet, but not to its full potential. The Earth civilization is currently at about 0.73 on the Kardashev scale.

The scale was originally designed in 1964 by the Russian astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev (1932-); → scale.

Keeler Gap
  گاف ِ کیلر   
gâf-e Keeler

Fr.: lacune de Keeler   

In the system of → Saturn's rings, the gap near the outer edge of the → A ring. It has a width of 35 km and lies at a distance of 136,530 km from the center of → Saturn.

After James A. Keeler (1857-1908); → gap.

Kellner eyepiece
  چشمی ِ کلنر   
cešmi-ye Kellner (#)

Fr.: oculaire de Kellner   

The first achromatic eyepiece consisting of a convex lens and a plano-convex lens. The convex surfaces are turned toward one another.

Named after the inventor Carl Kellner (1826-1855), a German engineer and optician; → eyepiece

kelvin (K)
  کلوین   
kelvin (#)

Fr.: kelvin   

The → SI unit of → thermodynamic temperature; symbol K. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the → Boltzmann constant, k, to be 1.380 649 × 10-23 when expressed in the unit J K-1, which is equal to kg m2 s-2 K-1 , where the kilogram, meter and second are defined in terms of → Planck's constant (h), → velocity of light (c), and ΔνCs.

Named after the Scottish physicist William Thomson, also known as Lord Kelvin (1824-1907), one of the most influential scientists of the 19th century.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>