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mâtris-e Jordan (#)
Fr.: matrice de Jordan
A square matrix with a constant value λ (nonzero) along the diagonal, 1's on the superdiagonal, and all other elements 0.
Named after Marie Ennemond Camille Jordan (1838-1922), French mathematician who pioneered group theory, wrote on the theory of linear differential equations, and on the theory of functions, which he applied to the curve which bears his name. → matrix.
Fr.: théorie de Jordan-Brans-Dicke
A relativistic theory of gravitation which involves a → scalar field in addition to the → metric (→ tensor field) used in rarr; general relativity. It obeys the → equivalence principle, but tries at the same time to comply with → Mach's principle owing to possible spatial and temporal variations of the → gravitational constant, which is inversely proportional to the scalar field. The theory uses a new dimensionless parameter to determine the discrepancy between its predictions and those of general relativity. So far there is no firm indication of its validity. Same as → scalar-tensor theory.
Named after the creators, Carl Brans (1935-) and Robert Dicke (1916-1997), who presented the theory in 1961, based on the initial work of Pascual Jordan (1902-1980); → theory.
Fr.: effet Josephson
Named after the British physicist Brian David Josephson, who predicted the existence of the effect in 1962; → effect.
juhe-ye Josephson (#)
Fr.: jonction Josephson
A unit of → energy in the → International System of Units equal to the → work performed by one → newton over a distance of 1 → meter. 1 J is equivalent to 107 ergs = 1 Watt second = 2.78 × 10-7 kWh = 0.2389 calories = 6.24 × 1018 eV.
In honor of the English physicist James Prescott Joule (1818-1889), who established that the various forms of energy (mechanical, electrical, and heat) are basically the same and can be changed, one into another.
Joule is in Pers. pronounced as žul, loaned from the Fr. rendering of the E. name.
Fr.: effet Joule
pâyâ-ye Joule (#)
Fr.: constante de Joule
The proportional relationship of mechanical energy to thermal energy, equal to 4.184 joules per calorie. Also called mechanical equivalent of heat.
Fr.: effet Joule-Thomson
The change in the temperature of a gas in the → throttling process.
From L. Jovius "Jupiter," Roman god of the sky, cognate with deus "god;" Gk. Zeus "supreme god;" Pers. div "devil, demon" (Mid.Pers. dêw; O.Pers. daiva- "evil god, demon;" Av. daēva- "evil spirit, false god;" Skt. deva-; PIE base *deiwos "god," from *dei- "to gleam, to shine").
Hormozi, related to Hormoz, → Jupiter.
Fr.: planète jovienne
Fr.: loi de Joy
Alfred Harrison Joy (1882-1973), an American astronomer; → law.
1) dâdras (#), dâvar; 2) dâvari kardan
Fr.: 1) juge; 2) juger
1a) A public officer authorized to hear and decide cases in a court of
law; a magistrate charged with the administration of justice.
M.E. jugen, from Anglo-Fr. juger, O.Fr. jugier "to form an opinion about; make a decision," also "to try and pronounce sentence upon (someone) in a court," from Anglo-Fr juger, O.Fr. jugier "to judge, pronounce judgment; pass an opinion on," from L. iudicare "to judge, to examine officially; form an opinion upon; pronounce judgment," from iudicem "a judge," a compound of ius "right, law," → just, + root of dicere "to say."
11 An act or instance of judging.
1) Pertaining to judgment in courts of justice or to the administration of justice:
judicial proceedings; the judicial system.
From L. iudicalis "of or belonging to a court of justice," from iudicium "judgment, decision," from iudicem, → judge.
Dâvarâné, dâvarik, of or relating to dâvari, → judgment.
gâhšomâr-e Yuliyâni (#)
Fr.: calendrier julien
A → solar calendar established by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C. to replace the → Roman calendar. It was inspired by the Egyptian calendar year of 365 days. The astronomer Sosigenes set up the months (January to December) and added an extra day in February every fourth year (→ leap year). This gave an average year of 365.25 days. The Julian calendar remained unchanged for 1,600 years, and was replaced by the → Gregorian calendar to correct its errors. The Roman calendar before the reform was running 80 days out of alignment with the seasons of a true year. Sosigenes fixed the calendar by having 445 days in the year 46 B.C., which brought the seasons in line with the calendar. The year 45 B.C. is known as the first leap year of the Julian calendar. However, Sosigenes' work was misinterpreted and they were placing leap years every 3 years instead of every 4 years.
Julian, adj. of L. Julius.
Julian date (JD)
Fr.: date julienne
A timekeeping system which does not have months and years. It is used primarily by astronomers to avoid confusion due to the use of different calendars at different times and places. Julian date is the interval of time in days and fractions of a day since noon 1 January 4713 B.C. (12h Universal Time). For example, January 1, 1970 is JD 2440588. Decimal fractions correspond to fractions of a day so that, for example, an observation made at 15h on June 24, 1962 is given as JD 2437840.13. → modified Julian date (MJD). Note that the "Julius" involved is not Julius Caesar, and this system is unrelated to the Julian calendar, as explained below.
The system was proposed by the French scholar Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609) in 1583 and named after his father, Julius Caesar Scaliger. His choice of starting year was based on the convergence in 4713 B.C. of three calendrical cycles (indication cycle, Metonic cycle, and solar cycle). → date.
ruz-e žulian (#)
Fr.: jour julien
Same as → Julian date.
Fr.: époch julienne
A way of specifying the date as a year with a decimal based on the Julian year of 365.25 days and the Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB). The standard epoch currently in use is J2000.0, which corresponds to January 1, 2000 12:00 Terrestrial Time.
sâl-e yuliyâni (#)
Fr.: année julienne
A period of 365.25 days adopted in the Julian calendar for the length of the year.
→ Julian calendar; &rarr ;year.
A point of discontinuity in a function or a derivative of a function.
Etymology unclear, probably akin to L.G. gumpen "to jump."
Jaheš, verbal noun of jahidan, jastan "to jump, to leap," from Mid.Pers. jastan, jahidan "to jump," figuratively "to happen, occur;" Av. yaēš-, yas- "to boil;" cf. Skt. yas-, yásyati "to boil, to heat; to make effort."