An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
plasma
  پلاسما   
plâsmâ (#)

Fr.: plasma   

In physics, a gas in which an important fraction of the atoms is ionized, so that the electrons and ions are separately free. Plasma, often described as the fourth state of matter, occurs at extremely high temperatures, as in the interiors of stars, in fusion reactors, and in the interstellar medium ionized by hot stars.

From L.L. plasma, from Gk. plasma "something molded or formed," from plassein "to mold," originally "to spread thin."

Plâsmâ, loan from Fr.

plasma beta
  پارامون ِ بتا   
pârâmun-e betâ

Fr.: paramètre bêta   

In plasma physics, a dimensionless quantity which is the ratio of the plasma thermal pressure to the magnetic pressure: β = nkT/(B2/2μ0). When β is much smaller than 1, like in the → solar corona, the magnetic forces dominate over the plasma forces.

plasma; β, Gk. letter of alphabet.

plasma cosmology
  کیهان‌شناسی ِ پلاسمایی   
keyhânšenâsi-ye plâsmâyi

Fr.: cosmologie plasma   

An alternative cosmology, initially conceived by Hannes Alfvén in the 1960s, that attempts to explain the development of the visible Universe through the interaction of electromagnetic forces on astrophysical plasma. Like the steady state model, plasma cosmology hypothesizes an evolving Universe without beginning or end.

plasma; → cosmology.

plasma frequency
  بسامد ِ پلاسما   
basâmad-e plâsmâ

Fr.: fréquence de plasma   

The natural frequency at which internal oscillations of a plasma occur. The plasma frequency is proportional to the square root of the electron density. → plasma oscillation.

plasma; → frequency.

plasma mantle
  روپوش ِ پلاسما   
rupuš-e plâsmâ (#)

Fr.: manteau de plasma   

(Geophysics): A layer of plasma located on the night-side of Earth, inside the magnetosphere and along its boundary. Under the action of electromagnetic forces, plasma contained in the mantle drifts equator-ward, along the tail axis.

plasma; → mantle.

plasma oscillation
  نوِش ِ پلاسما   
naveš-e plâsmâ

Fr.: oscillation de plasma   

The oscillatory motion of electrons in a neutral plasma around their equilibrium position while the ions remain at rest. When electrons are displaced by any kind of perturbation with respect to ions, a pair of positive and negative charged regions is formed. The Coulomb force accelerates back the displaced electrons, which get kinetic energy. The electrons overshoot their original positions by the same amount as their first displacement.

plasma; → oscillation.

plasma physics
  فیزیک ِ پلاسما، پلاسمافیزیک   
fizik-e plâsmâ (#), plâsmâ fizik (#)

Fr.: physique des plasmas   

The study of the physical properties of the various forms of plasmas and their processing.

plasma; → physics.

plasma tail
  دنباله‌ی ِ پلاسمایی   
donbale-ye plâsmâyi

Fr.: queue de plasma   

The ionized component of a comet's tail, driven nearly straight away from the Sun by the solar wind. Also called ion tail and gas tail.

plasma; → tail.

plasmapause
  پلاسمامرز   
plâsmâmarz

Fr.: plasmapause   

The sharp outer boundary of the plasmasphere, at which the plasma density decreases by a factor of 100 or more.

plasma + pause "break, cessation, stop," from M.Fr. pause, from L. pausa "a halt, stop, cessation," from Gk. pausis "stopping, ceasing," from pauein "to stop, to cause to cease."

plasma + marz "frontier, border, boundary," from Mid.Pers. marz "boundary;" Av. marəza- "border, district," marəz- "to rub, wipe;" Mod.Pers. parmâs "contact, touching" (→ contact), mâl-, mâlidan "to rub;" PIE base *merg- "boundary, border;" cf. L. margo "edge" (Fr. marge "margin"); P.Gmc. *marko; Ger. Mark; E. mark, margin.

plasmasphere
  پلاسماسپهر   
pelâsmâsepehr

Fr.: plasmasphère   

In the magnetosphere, a region of relatively cool (low energy) and dense plasma that may be considered an outer extension of the ionosphere with which it is coupled. Like the ionosphere, the plasmasphere tends to co-rotate with the Earth.

plasma + → sphere.

plasmon
  پلاسمون   
plâsmon

Fr.: plasmon   

Physics: The quasiparticle resulting from the → quantization of → plasma oscillations. Plasmons are collective oscillations of free electrons inside or on surfaces of materials.

From plasm-, from → plasma + → -on.

plasmonics
  پلاسمونیک   
plâsmonik

Fr.: plasmonique   

The research area dealing with the interaction of → plasmons and → photons and the technology of its practical use. Plasmonics represents one of the most active research fields at the interface of → nanotechnology and → optics.

plasmon; → -ics.

plastic
  شوکایند   
šukâyand

Fr.: plastique   

1a) Capable of being → deformed continuously and permanently without → rupture.
1b) Capable of being molded.
1c) Made or consisting of a plastic.
2) → plastic substance.

From L. plasticus, from Gk. plastikos "that may be molded, pertaining to molding," from plassein "to mold."

Šukâyand, literally "moldable," from šuk, contraction of šuka (Dehxodâ) "a mold in which ingots are cast" + âyand agent noun form of âmadan "to come; to become," → elastic.

plastic deformation
  وادیسش ِ شوکایند   
vâdiseš-e šukâyand

Fr.: déformation plastique   

Permanent → deformation of a → solid subjected to a → stress.

plastic; → deformation.

plastic substance
  زیریست ِ شوکایند   
zirist-e šukâyand

Fr.: substance plastique   

A substance which remains → deformed after an applied → force ceases to act.

plastic; → substance.

plasticity
  شوکایندی   
šukâyandi

Fr.: plasticité   

The property which enables a material to be → deformed permanently without → rupture during the application of a → force. An → elastic material becomes plastic above its → yield point. See also → elasticity, → ductility.

plastic; → -ity.

plate
  ۱) تیغه؛ ۲)؛ ۳) پلاک   
1) tiqé (#); 2); 3) pelâk (#)

Fr.: 1) lame; 2); 3) plaque   

1) Optics: Any crystalline material whose length is much less than its measured diameter. → half-wave plate.
2) A flat piece of material on which a picture or text has been produced.
3) Any of the large movable segments into which the Earth's lithosphere is divided. → plate tectonics.

M.E., from O.Fr. plate "thin piece of metal," from M.L. plata "plate, piece of metal," perhaps via V.L. *plattus, from Gk. platys " flat, broad."

1) Tiqé, from tiq "blade," related to tiz "sharp," variants tig, tež, tej, tij; Mid.Pers. tigr, têz, têž "sharp," O.Pers. tigra- "pointed," tigra.xauda- "pointed helmet (epithet of Scythians)," Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow," tiži.arštay- "with the pointed spear," cf. Skt. tikta- "sharp, pungent, bitter," tejas- "sharpness, edge, point or top of a flame;" PIE base *st(e)ig- "to stick; pointed." Cognates in other IE languages: Gk. stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument," L. in-stigare "to goad," O.H.G. stehhan, Ger. stechen "to stab, prick," Du. stecken, O.E. sticca "rod, twig, spoon," E. stick.
2); 3) loanword from Fr., as above.

plate center
  مرکز ِ پلاک   
markaz-e pelâk

Fr.: centre de plaque   

The celestial coordinates of the center of the field of an astronomical photographic plate.

plate; → center.

plate scale
  مرپل ِ پلاک   
marpel-e pelâk

Fr.: échelle de plaque   

The scale factor for converting linear measure on a photographic plate to angular measurement on the sky.

plate; → scale.

plate tectonics
  سازانیک ِ پلاک   
sâzânik-e pelâk

Fr.: tectonique des plaques   

The theory supported by a wide range of evidence in which the Earth's crust is composed of several large, thin, relatively rigid plates that move relative to one another. The interaction of the plates at their boundaries causes seismic and tectonic activity along these boundaries. See also → continental drift.

plate; → tectonics.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>