An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
dew point
  نقطه‌ی ِ شبنم   
noqte-ye šabnam (#)

Fr.: point de rosée   

The temperature to which a given air parcel must be cooled at constant pressure and constant water vapor content in order for saturation to occur.

dew; → point.

dewar
  دو‌ءر   
dewar

Fr.: dewar, vase dewar   

Insulated bottle containing a cryogenic fluid. The electronic detectors operated at very low temperature are mounted inside a dewar.

Named after its inventor Sir James Dewar (1842-1923), Scottish chemist and physicist.

dewbow
  شبنم‌کمان   
šabnam kamân

Fr.:   

A rainbow formed in the small drops often found on grass in early morning. While the name implies that those drops are dew, that is probably rarely the case. Rather, the drops are usually the result of guttation (the water exuded from leaves as a result of root pressure) rather than dew.

dew; → bow.

dex
  دکس   
deks (#)

Fr.: dex   

A conventional notation for decimal exponent, which converts the number after it into its common antilogarithm; for example, dex (2.35) = 102.35.

From decimal + exponent.

dextro-, dextr-
  راست-   
râst- (#)

Fr.: dextro-, dextr-   

A combining form meaning "right" and "turning clockwise," used in the formation of compound words, e.g. → dextrorotatory, dextrocardia, dextrocular, etc. The variant dextr- occurs before vowels. Compare → levo-.

From L. dextr-, from dexter "right, right-hand;" cf. Gk. dexios "right," dexiteros "located on the right side;" Av. dašina- "right; south" ( Mid.Pers. dašn "right hand; " Ossetic dæsni "skillful, dexterous"); Skt. dáksina- "right; southern;" Goth. taihswo "right hand;" O.Ir. dess "on the right hand, southern;" PIE base *deks- "right;" + epenthetic vowel -o-; see also → south.

Râst- from râst, → right.

dextrorotation
  راست‌چرخش   
râstcarxeš

Fr.: dextrorotation   

The clockwise rotation of the → plane of polarization of light (as viewed by an observer looking straight in the incoming light) by certain substances. See also → levorotation.

dextro-; → rotation.

dextrorotatory
  راست‌چرخ   
râstcarx

Fr.: dextrogyre   

Relating to an → optically active substance that causes → dextrorotation.

Adj. related to → dextrorotation.

di-
  دو-، دی-   
do-, di-

Fr.: di-   

A prefix meaning "two; twice; double." → dimer, → diode, → dipole, → diproton.

L. di, from Gk., → two.

diagnose
  پرناسیدن   
parnâsidan

Fr.: diagnostiquer   

To identify the nature of (an illness or other problem) by examination of the symptoms (OxfordDictionaries.com).

diagnosis.

diagnosis
  پرناس   
parnâs

Fr.: diagnostic   

1) The process of determining by examination the nature and circumstances of a diseased condition.
2) The decision reached from such an examination.
3) Scientific determination; a description that classifies a group or taxon precisely; a determining or analysis of the cause or nature of a problem or situation (Dictionary.com).

L., from Gk. diagnosis "a discerning, distinguishing," from stem of diagignoskein "discern, distinguish," literally "to know thoroughly," from dia- "through" + gignoskein "to learn," cognate with Pers. šenâs-, šenâxtan "to know, to be acquinted" and dânestan "to know," as below, ultimately from PIE root *gno- "to know."

Parnâs, from par- "through," + nâs "to know," as in Zazaki nâs- "to know," Kurd. nâs-, nâsîn "to know," related to Pers. šenâs- "to know," related to šenâxtan, → knowledge and dânestan, → science.

diagnostic
  ۱) پرناسی؛ ۲) پرناسه   
1) parnâsi; 2) parnâsé

Fr.: diagnostique   

1a) Of, relating to, or used in → diagnosis.
1b) Serving to identify or characterize; being a precise indication.
2a) Diagnosis.
2b) A symptom or characteristic of value in diagnosis.
2c) A message output by a computer diagnosing an error in a computer program, computer system, or component device; a program or subroutine that produces such messages (Dictionary.com).

From Gk. diagnostikos "able to distinguish," → diagnosis.

diagnosis.

diagonal
  تراکنج   
tarâkonj

Fr.: diagonale   

In a → polygon, a line segment joining any two non-adjacent vertices (→ vertex).

From M.Fr. diagonal, from L. diagonalis, from diagonus "slanting line," from Gk. diagonios "from angle to angle," from dia- "across, dividing two parts" + gonia "angle," related to gony "knee," L. genu "knee," Mod.Pers. zânu "knee," Av. žnav-, žnu- "knee," Skt. janu-; PIE base *g(e)neu-, see below.

Tarâkonj, from tarâ- "across, through," → trans-, + konj "angle, corner, confined place" (variants xong "corner, angle," Tabari kânj, Kurd. kunj, Hamadâni kom), maybe from the PIE base *g(e)neu-, as above, and related to Mod.Pers. zânu "knee" (Av. žnu-), Skt. kona- "angle, corner," Gk. gony, gonia, L. cuneus "a wedge," Albanian (Gheg dialect) kân "angle, corner," Albanian (Toks) kënd "angle, corner."

diagram
  نمودار   
nemudâr (#)

Fr.: diagramme   

A graphic representation of the behavior of one or several variables.

From Fr. diagramme, from L. diagramma, from Gk. diagramma "that which is marked out by lines," from diagraphein "to mark out by lines," from dia- "across, out" + graphein "to write, draw," → -graphy.

Nemudâr agent noun of nemudan "to show," → display, from the past stem nemud + -âr, such as xâstâr, foruxtâr, padidâr, parastâr (contraction of *parastidâr).

diamagnetic
  پادمغناتی   
pâdmeqnâti

Fr.: diamagnétique   

Relative to or characterized by → diamagnetism.

diamagnetism.

diamagnetism
  پادمغنات‌مندی   
pâdmeqnâtmandi

Fr.: diamagnétisme   

The property of a substance, like bismuth, that creates a weak magnetic field in opposition of an externally applied magnetic field, thus causing a repulsive effect. In diamagnetic materials the → magnetic moments of individual atoms are not permanent. Within each atom the electron spins and orbital motions all exactly balance out, so any particular atom has no net magnetic moment. The external magnetic field generates little currents by induction. According to → Lenz's law, the induced magnetic moments of the atoms are directed opposite to the magnetic field.

Diamagnetic, from Gk. dia- a prefix used with several meanings "passing through; thoroughly; completely; going apart," and in the present case "opposed;" → magnetic. magnetic.

Pâdmeqnât, from pâd- "against, contrary," → anti-, + megnâtmagnetism.

diameter
  ترامون   
tarâmun (#)

Fr.: diamètre   

Any chord passing through the center of a figure. The length of this chord.

O.Fr. diamètre, from L. diametrus, from Gk. diametros "diagonal of a circle," from dia- "across, through" + metron "a measure" → meter.

Tarâmun, from tarâ- "across, through," → trans- + mun/mân "measure," as in Pers. terms pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl," from O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure," cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure," Gk. metron "measure," L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure."

diamond
  الماس   
almâs (#)

Fr.: diamant   

A crystalline form of → carbon, which is the hardest substance known. Each carbon in a diamond crystal is bonded to four other carbon atoms forming a tetrahedral unit. This tetrahedral bonding of five carbon atoms forms an incredibly strong molecule. Diamond has a very high → refractive index and → dispersive power. It is colorless when pure, and sometimes colored by traces of impurities. Natural diamond was formed billions of years ago within the Earth → mantle at depths greater than 150 km, where pressure is roughly 5 giga→ pascals and the temperature is around 1200 °C. Diamonds reach the surface of the Earth via volcanic eruptions. Similarly very small diamonds (micrometer and nanometer sizes) are usually found in impact sites of → meteorites. Such impact events create shock zones of high pressure and temperature suitable for diamond formation. When diamond is exposed to high temperatures or ion bombardment, it will be transformed into → graphite.

Diamond, from O.Fr. diamant, from M.L. diamant-, diamas-, from L. adamant-, adamas "hardest metal," from Gk. adamas "unbreakable," from → a- "not" + daman "to subdue, to tame;" cognate with Pers. dâm "a tame animal."

Almâs, loanword from Gk., as above.

diamond ring effect
  اسکر ِ انگشتر ِ الماس   
oskar-e angoštar-e almâs

Fr.: effet anneau de diamant   

An intense flash of light that happens a few seconds before and after totality during a solar eclipse. The effect is caused by the last rays of sunlight before totality (or the first rays of sunlight after totality) shining through valleys on the edge of the Moon.

diamond; → ring; → effect.

Oskar, → effect; angoštar "a ring worn on the finger," from angošt "finger," Mid.Pers. angušt "finger, toe," Av. angušta- "toe," from ank- "curved, crooked," cf. Skt. angustha- "thumb," ankah "hook, bent," Gk. angkon "elbow," angkura "anchor," L. angulum "corner" (E. angle), Lith. anka "loop," O.E. ancleo "ankle," O.H.G. ango "hook," PIE base *ang-/*ank- "to bend"; → diamond.

diaphragm
  میان‌بند   
miyânband (#)

Fr.: diaphragme   

A device with a restricted aperture, located in an optical system at any of several points, that cuts off marginal light rays not essential to image formation.

From L.L. diaphragma, from Gk. diaphragma "partition, barrier," from diaphrassein "to barricade," from dia- "across" + phrassein "to fence or hedge in."

Miyânban, from miyân "middle, interior, between" (Mid.Pers. miyân "middle," Av. maiδya-, maiδyāna- "medium, middle," cf. Skt. mádhya- "middle, intemediate," Gk. mesos "middle," L. medius "middle," Goth. midjis, O.E. midd "middle," O.C.S. medzu "between," Arm. mej "middle," PIE *medhyo- "middle," , from base *me- "between") + band "barrier, shutter," from bastan "to bind, shut" (Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind").

dichotomy
  دوپارگی   
dopâregi

Fr.: dichotomie   

1) General: A division in two parts or kinds that differ widely from or contradict each other.
2) Astro.: The phase of the Moon or a planet when half of its surface appears illuminated by the Sun.

From Gk. dichotomia "cutting in two," from dicho- "apart, in two," combining form of dicha "in two, asunder," akin to → di-, + temnein "to cut."

Dopâregi, from dotwo + pâré "piece, part, portion, fragment" (Mid.Pers. pârag "piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assign;" cf. L. pars "part, piece, side, share," portio "share, portion;" Gk. peprotai "it has been granted;" Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya- "to break, crumble") + -(g)i a noun/state suffix.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>