An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
acronical rising
  بر‌آیش ِ شامگاهی   
barâyeš-e šâmgâhi

Fr.: lever acronyque   

The rising of a star in the sky at or just after sunset. → heliacal rising.

acronical; → rising.

acronical setting
  فروشد ِ شامگاهی   
forušod-e šâmgâhi

Fr.: coucher acronyque   

The setting of a star at nightfall. → heliacal setting.

acronical; → setting.

Acrux
  اکروکس   
Akruks

Fr.: Acrux   

A southern hemisphere bright star (α Crucis) of magnitude 0.77 lying at a distance of 321 → light-years. It is apparently made up of three components. The primary component, Acrux A, is a blue subgiant of apparent magnitude 1.34 and spectral type B0.5 IV. The B component lies at about 4.1 arcsec away from the A component, which represents a distance of at least 400 AU, that is, more than 10 times the distance between the sun and planet Pluto. The C component lies about 90 arcsec away from A.

Acrux, from A, from Alpha, designating the brightest star of the constellation + crux, the constellation name. The name Acrux is probably a coinage of the American astronomer, Elijah H. Burritt, who published several editions of an astronomical atlas between 1833 and 1856.

act
  ژیر؛ ژیریدن   
žir (n.); žiridan (v.)

Fr.: acte, action; agir   

1) The process of doing or performing something; something done or performed.
2) (v.intr.) To carry out an action; to produce an effect.

Act, from O.Fr. acte, from L. actus "a doing" and actum "a thing done," both from agere "to do, set in motion, drive, urge, chase, stir up," from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move" (cf. Gk. agein "to lead, guide, drive, carry off," agon "assembly, contest in the games," agogos "leader;" Av. az- "to drive (away)," azaiti "drives," Mod.Pers. govâz "stick for driving cattle," from Av. gauuāza-, from gao- "cow, ox, cattle" (→ Bootes) + āza-, from az-, as above; Skt. aj- "to drive, sling," ájati "drives," ajirá- "agile, quick." The E. agile "characterized by quickness, lightness, and ease of movement; mentally quick or alert" is from this root.

In major European languages there are two fundamental and very close verbs which convey "work, action, activity". These are: 1) to do (in French faire, Spanish hacer, German machen) and 2) to act (French agir, Spanish actuar, German handeln). In Persian there is only one word for these two concepts: kardan; and this is obviously a big handicap. An ad hoc equivalent for action has therefore been koneš, from kardan "to do." The problem is that this solution, despite being widely used, confounds "to do" with "to act," and is incapable of forming all the related derivatives. Therefore, we propose žir, which derives from Av. žirā- "active, agile, clever;" Mid.Pers. žir, zir "active, busy" (loaned in Arm. žir "active, busy, clear"), Mod.Pers. zirak "clever, alert, intelligent;" Kurd. žir "agile," žiri "agility."

actinide
  اکتینید   
aktinid (#)

Fr.: actinide   

Any member of the group of → chemical elements with → atomic numbers from 89 (→ actinium) to 103 (→ lawrencium), analogous to the → lanthanides.

From the chemical element → actinium.

actinium
  اکتینیوم   
aktiniom (#)

Fr.: actinium   

A silver-white radioactive → chemical element; symbol Ac. The first member of the → actinide series of the → periodic table. → Atomic number 89; → atomic weight 227.0278; → melting point about 1,050°C; → boiling point 3,200°C ± 300°C; → specific gravity 10.07; → valence +3. It is found with uranium minerals in pitchblende. Its longest lived → isotope is 227Ac with a → half-life of 21.77 years.

From actin-, variant of actino-, from Gk. aktinos "ray, beam" + → -ium. The discovery of actinium is shared between two chemists who independently found the element. The earlier discovery was made by the French chemist André Debierne (1874-1949) in 1899 in pitchblende residues left after Pierre and Marie Curie had extracted → radium. The element was rediscovered in 1902 by the German chemist Friedrich Otto Giesel (1852-1927), who called it emanium.

actinometer
  پرتوسنج   
partowsanj

Fr.: actinomètre   

Any instrument for measuring the intensity of radiation, especially that of the Sun, in its thermal, chemical, and luminous aspects.

Actinometer, from actino- combining form with the meaning "ray, beam," from Gk. aktis, aktin "ray," + → -meter.

Partow, → ray; + -sanj, → -meter.

action
  ژیرش، کنش   
žireš, koneš (#)

Fr.: action   

1) The process or state of acting or of being active.
2) According to → Newton's third law of motion, an external force that is applied to a body and that is counteracted by an equal force in the opposite direction ( → reaction).
3) A quantity whose → dimension (ML2T-1) coincides with that of → angular momentum, the → impulse of a force, or → energy x → time. The action plays an important part in → analytical mechanics, → quantum mechanics, and in a number of other fields of physics. Initially introduced in analytical mechanics, the concept of action has become a basic ingredient of modern physics, due to the role it has played in the generalization of → variational principle.
4) A scalar quantity computed as a function of the path followed by a system during its evolution between an initial instant ti and a final instant tf. It is defined by the → integral of the → Lagrangian between the two instants:
S = ∫L dt
In the framework of the → field theory, the action is expressed by the integral of the → Lagrangian density over the corresponding space-time volume:
S = ∫Ld d4x.
In classical physics, the path actually followed by the system is the one for which S is stationary (→ least action problem).
5) → quantum of action.
6) Math.: The action is a → functional, a mathematical relationship which takes an entire path and produces a single number.

Action, from O.Fr. action, from L. actionem, from agere "to do," → act.

Žireš, verbal noun from žir stem of žiridan "to act;" → act. Koneš, noun from kardan "to do, to make," Mid.Pers. kardan, O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "makes," cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make."

action at a distance
  ژیرش از دور   
žireš az dur

Fr.: action à distance   

The instantaneous action of a body on another body independently of the distance separating them. The description of → gravity by → Newton's law and → electrostatics by → Coulomb's law are examples of action at a distance. According to Newton, → gravitation acts directly and instantaneously between two objects. For example, if the Sun should suddenly break apart, the Earth's orbit would be affected instantaneously. However, action at a distance violates the → principle of relativistic causality. According to → general relativity, gravitational effects travel at the → speed of light. For modern physics there is no instantaneous action at a distance.

action; → distance.

action variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ ژیرش   
vartande-ye žireš

Fr.: variable d'action   

The time integral associated with the evolution of a physical system in the phase space.

action; → variable.

activate
  ژیراندن   
žirândan

Fr.: activer   

1) To induce activity in a system that is static, as in neutron activation of radioactivity.
2) To start the operation of an electrical device.

Activate, verb from → active.

Žirândan, transitive verb from žir, → act.

activation
  ژیرانش   
žirâneš

Fr.: activation   

1) The process of inducing or creating a state of → activity.
2) The process of producing a → radioactive isotope by bombarding a → stable → nuclide with → nuclear particles (such as → protons, → neutrons, → alpha particles, heavy ions, etc.).

Verbal noun of → activate; → -tion.

activation energy
  کاروژ ِ ژیرانش   
kâruž-e žirâneš

Fr.: énergie d'activation   

Chemistry: The minimum amount of energy that is required to activate → atoms or → molecules to a condition in which they can undergo a → chemical reaction. Most reactions involving neutral molecules cannot take place at all until they have acquired the energy needed to stretch, bend, or otherwise distort one or more → bonds. In most cases, the activation energy is supplied by → thermal energy.

activation; → energy.

active
  ژیرا، ژیرنده   
žirâ, žirande

Fr.: actif   

1) Being in a state of action; not quiescent.
2) Functioning or capable of functioning.
3) Marked by vigorous activity.

M.Fr. actif, from L. activus, from actus, p.p. of agere, → act.

Žirâ, adj. from stem žir, → act + suffix .

active galactic nucleus (AGN)
  هسته‌ی ِ کهکشان ِ ژیرا   
haste-ye kahkašân-e žirâ

Fr.: noyau actif de galaxie   

A central region of an → active galaxy, which is a → light-year or less in diameter and has an abnormally high luminosity. The nucleus emits high energy radiation (→ gamma rays, → X-rays, → ultraviolet) and shows → variability over various time-scales, sometimes very short (hours to weeks). Emission line spectra reveal high velocity motions up to 104 km s-1. AGNs are divided into two main types. Type I refers to an AGN whose nucleus is visible (the spectra has both narrow and broad emission lines), while in type II AGN, the broad line region (BLR) is obscured and the lines are very narrow. This may be due either to the viewing angle or some intrinsic difference in structure. See also → broad-line region, → narrow-line region, → quasar.

active; → galactic; → nucleus.

active galaxy
  کهکشان ِ ژیرا   
kahkašân-e žirâ

Fr.: galaxie active   

A galaxy that produces huge amounts of energy at its center, which cannot be attributed to normal processes from stars, interstellar medium, and their interactions. There are several types of active galaxies: → Seyfert galaxies, → quasars, and → blazars. All of these objects show brightness variations, some as short as 3 hours. These fluctuations indicate a relatively very small size for the central object, because an object cannot vary in brightness faster than light can travel across it. For example, an object that is one → light-year in diameter cannot vary significantly in brightness over a period of less than one year.

active; → galaxy.

active optics
  نوریک ِ ژیرا   
nurik-e žirâ

Fr.: optique active   

A technique for improving the → resolving power of a telescope by controlling the shape of the main mirror at a relatively slow rate. The → image quality is optimized automatically through constant adjustments by in-built corrective → actuators operating at fairly low temporal frequency ~0.05 Hz or less. → adaptive optics.

active; → optics.

active prominence
  زبانه‌ی ِ ژیرا   
zabâne-ye žirâ

Fr.: protubérance active   

A solar → prominence with very rapid motion (up to 2,000 km s-1), moving and changing in appearance over a few minutes of time, in contrast to a → quiescent prominence.

active; → prominence.

active region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ ژیرا   
nâhiye-ye žirâ

Fr.: région active   

An area of the Sun exhibiting → solar activity with the presence of → sunspots, → flares, → faculae, → prominences, and other phenomena associated with intense magnetic fields.

active; → region.

active sun
  خورشید ِ ژیرا   
xoršid-e žirâ

Fr.: soleil actif   

The Sun during its 11-year cycle of activity when spots, flares, prominences, and variations in radiofrequency radiation are at a maximum.

active; → sun.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>