An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
fractionation
  برخانش   
barxâneš

Fr.: fractionnement   

1) Any of various methods of separating the components of a mixture into fractions of different properties.
2) → isotope fractionation

Verbal noun from → fractionate.

fragment
  ۱) لته، لت، پاره؛ ۲) لتپار شدن؛ ۳) لتپاریدن   
1) latté (#), latt (#), pâré (#); 2) latpâr šodan (#); 3) latpâridan

Fr.: 1) fragment; 2) se fragmenter; 3) fragmenter   

1) (n.) A part broken off or detached.
2) (v.intr.) To collapse or break into pieces.
3) (v.tr.) To break something into pieces.

From L. fragmentum, from frangere "to break."

1) Latté, lat, variant laxt, laxté "piece, part;" pâré "piece, part, portion, fragment;" Mid.Pers. pârag "piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assigne;" cf. L. pars "part, piece, side, share," portio "share, portion;" Gk. peprotai "it has been granted;" Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya- "to break, crumble."
2) and 3) Verbal forms.

fragmentation
  لتپارش   
latpâreš

Fr.: fragmentation   

Generally, the process of breaking up into smaller parts. In particular, the splitting of a large molecular cloud into smaller, denser clumps. → cloud fragmentation.

From → fragmenta + -ation, a combination of -ate and -ion, used to form nouns from stems in -ate.

Latpâreš, verbal noun from latpâridan, → fragment.

fragmentation process
  فراروند ِ لتپارش   
farâravand-e latpâreš

Fr.: processus de fragmentation   

The succession of physical events that results in the breaking of a → molecular cloud into several → fragments.

fragmentation; → process.

frame
  ۱) چارچوب؛ ۲)، ۳) تصویرک   
1) cârcub (#); 2), 3) tasvirak

Fr.: 1) cadre; 2), 3) image   

1) A border or case for enclosing a picture, mirror, etc.; a structure for admitting or enclosing something.
2) One of the successive pictures on a roll of movie film or videotape.
3) In computers, the information or image on a screen or monitor at any one time.

Frame, from M.E. verb framen "to prepare (timber)," from O.E. framian "to avail, profit."; cf. O.H.G. (gi)framon "to do."

1) Cârcub "frame," from câr, contraction of cahâr "four" (→ four) + cub "stick, satff, beam," Mid.Pers. côp "wood, stick." 2) Tasvirak from Ar. tasvir "image" + -ak suffix of relation and similarity (as in poštak, dastak, nâxonak), → fibril.

frame dragging
  کرّه‌ی ِ چارچوب، چارچوب-کرّه   
kerre-ye cârcub, cârcub-kerré

Fr.: entraînement des repères, effet Lense-Thirring   

The alteration in the → free fall motion of a test → mass in the presence of a massive → rotating object, as compared to the identical case of a non-rotating object. This dragging of → inertial frames is predicted by → general relativity. Also called → Lense-Thirring effect.

frame; → drag.

frame frequency
  بسامد ِ تصویر   
basâmad-e tasvir

Fr.: fréquence image   

The number of times per second that the frame is scanned in television. Also known as picture frequency.

frame; → frequency.

frame of reference
  چارچوب ِ بازبرد   
câcub-e bâzbord

Fr.: système de référence   

A set of axes to which positions and motions in a system can be referred.

frame; → reference.

framing
  چارچوبش   
cârcubeš

Fr.: cadrage   

The process of adjusting a television picture to a desired position in the direction of progression.

From → frame + → -ing.

Cârcubeš, verbal noun of cârcubidan, from cârcubframe.

francium
  فرانسیوم   
frânsiom (#)

Fr.: francium   

An extremely rare radioactive chemical element; symbol Fr. Atomic number 87; atomic weight of most stable isotope 223; melting point about 27°C; boiling point about 677°C. Its most stable isotope (half-life about 22 minutes) occurs naturally, to a very limited extent, in uranium minerals. More than 30 other isotopes of francium are known; some are prepared by bombarding thorium with protons, deuterons, or alpha particles.

From France, where the French physicist Marguerite Perey (1919-1975) discovered it in 1939 in the alpha particle decay of actinium.

Fraunhofer line
  خط ِ فراؤنهوفر   
xatt-e Fraunhofer

Fr.: raie de Fraunhofer   

One of many absorption lines and bands in the spectrum of the Sun. The most prominent features are labeled with capital letters A to K, starting at the red end. The A and B bands are now known to be caused by absorption in Earth's atmosphere, while the rest are due to absorption in the Sun's → photosphere. C and F are now better known as H-alpha and H-beta (→ Balmer series); the → D lines are of sodium, the → H and K lines of calcium, and the G band of neutral iron and the interstellar → CH (methylidine) molecule.

Named after Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826), German optician and physicist, who discovered these lines in 1814; → line.

Fraunhofer's refractor
  شکست‌گر ِ فراؤنهوفر   
šekastgar-e Fraunhofer

Fr.: réfracteur de Fraunhofer   

The first modern refracting telescope which had an outstanding quality. It was built in 1824 by Fraunhofer for the Russian Imperial Observatory in Dorpat, now Tartu in Estonia. It had a 23-cm → achromatic lens and a German-type → equatorial mounting driven by a clockwork. Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) used the refractor to observe many → visual binaries, and attempted to measure the distances of stars through their visual → parallaxes. He also obtaibned accurate values for the diameters of the → Galilean satellites of → Jupiter.

Named after Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826), German optician and physicist; → refractor.

free
  آزاد   
âzâd (#)

Fr.: libre   

Not physically bound by something.
free atmosphere, → free body, → free charge, → free electron, → free expansion phase, → free fall, → free flow, → free occurrence, → free oscillation, → free radical, → free system, → free-bound emission, → free-fall time, → free-floating object, → free-free emission, → freedom, → bound-free transition, → force-free magnetic field, → Gibbs free energy, → Helmholtz free energy, → mean free path, → universality of free fall.

From M.E. fre, O.E. freo "free, exempt from," also "noble, joyful;" cf. Ger. frei, Du. vrij; ultimately from PIE *prijos "dear, beloved;" cf. Av. frāy- "to satisfy, propitiate," friθa- "beloved; dear," friθô.tara- "more beloved," Mod.Pers. fari "happy, fortunate, blessed; pleasing, good," Skt. priyá- "beloved, wished for;" Gk. praos "mild, gentle."

Âzâd "free," from Mid.Pers. âzât "free, noble;" Av. āzāta- "high-born, noble," from zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born," āsna- "innate, natural;" cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears;" Gk. gignesthai "to become, happen," genes "born;" L. gignere "to beget;" PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget."

free atmosphere
  جو ِ آزاد، هواسپهر ِ ~   
javv-e âzâd, havâsepehr-e ~

Fr.: atmosphère libre   

That part of the atmosphere where the effects of the ground on the → turbulence conditions are negligible.

free, → atmosphere.

free body
  جسم ِ آزاد   
jesm-e âzâd (#)

Fr.: corps libre   

A → rigid body not constrained with other bodies and which from any given position can be displaced in any direction in space. Opposite of → constrained body.

free; → body.

free charge
  بارِ آزاد   
bâr-e âzâd

Fr.: charge libre   

An electric charge which is not held by another charge, in contrast to a → bound charge.

free; → charge.

free electron
  الکترون ِ آزاد   
elektron-e âzâd (#)

Fr.: électron libre   

An electron that is not attached to an → atom, → molecule, or → ion and is free to move under the influence of a present electric or magnetic field.

free; → electron.

free expansion phase
  فاز ِ سپانش ِ آزاد   
fâz-e sopâneš-e âzâd

Fr.: phase d'expansion libre   

The first phase of → supernova remnant (SNR) evolution in which the surrounding → interstellar medium (ISM) has no influence on the expansion of the → shock wave, and the pressure of the interstellar gas is negligible. The shock wave created by the → supernova explosion moves outward into the interstellar gas at highly → supersonic speed. Assuming that most of the → supernova energy  ESN is transformed into → kinetic energy of the ejected gas, the ejection velocity ve can be estimated from ESN by using ESN = (1/2) Meve2, which leads to ve = (2ESN / Me)(1/2), where Me is the ejected mass. The schematic structure of the SNR at this phase can be described as follows: behind the strong → shock front which moves outward into the ISM, compressed interstellar gas accumulates forming a → shell of interstellar gas. This shell of swept-up material in front of shock does not represent a significant increase in the mass of the system. After some time the accumulated mass equals the ejected mass of stellar material, and it will start to affect the expansion of the SNR. By definition, this is the end of the free expansion phase, and the corresponding radius of the SNR, called → sweep-up radius, RSW, is defined by Me = (4π/3) RSW3ρ0, that is RSW = (3Me / 4πρ0)(1/3), where ρ0 is the initial density of the ISM. This radius is reached at the sweep-up time tSW = RSW/ve. The free expansion phase lasts some 100-200 years until the mass of the material swept up by the shock wave exceeds the mass of the ejected material. Then the following → snowplow phase starts.

free; → expansion; → phase.

free fall
  افت ِ آزاد   
oft-e âzâd (#)

Fr.: chute libre   

The motion of a body under the influence of → gravity alone. See also → free-fall time.

free; → fall.

free flow
  تچان ِ آزاد   
tacân-e âzâd

Fr.: écoulement libre   

A fluid flow which develops when density differences within the fluid are the only driving forces. See also → forced flow.

free; → flow.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>