An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
Markarian's eyes
  چشمهای ِ مارکاریان   
cašmhâ-ye Markarian

Fr.: les yeux de Markarian   

Two → interacting galaxies, NGC 4438 and NGC 4435, located in → Markarian's chain of galaxies in the → Virgo cluster of galaxies. About 50 million → light-years away, the two galaxies are about 100,000 light-years apart. Gravitational → tidal forces from the → close encounter have ripped away at their stars, gas, and dust. The more massive NGC 4438 kept much of the material ripped out in the collision, while material from the smaller NGC 4435 was more easily lost.

Markarian galaxy; → eye.

marker
  داجگر، داجنده   
dâjgar, dâjandé

Fr.: marqueur   

1) An object used to indicate a position, place, or route.
2) A distinctive feature or characteristic indicative of a particular quality or condition.
3) Genetics: An allele used to identify a chromosome or to locate other genes on a genetic map (OxfordDictionaries.com).
4) → biomarker.

mark; → -er.

Markov chain
  زنجیره‌ی ِ مارکوف   
zanjire-ye Markov (#)

Fr.: chaîne de Markov   

A → stochastic process, based on the classical → random walk concept, in which the probabilities of occurrence of various future states depend only on the previous state of the system and not on any of earlier states. Also called Markov process and Markovian principle.

Named after Andrey Andreyevich Markov (1856-1922), a Russian mathematician, who introduced this model in 1906; → chain.

Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)
  روش ِ مونت کارلو با زنجیره‌ی ِ مارکوف   
raveš-e Monte Carlo bâ zanjire-ye Markov

Fr.: Méthode de Monte-Carlo par chaînes de Markov   

A method for sampling from → probability distributions using → Markov chains. MCMC methods are widely used in data modeling for → Bayesian inference and numerical integration in physics, chemistry, biology, statistics, and computer science.

Markov chain; → Monte Carlo Method.

Mars
  بهرام   
Bahrâm (#)

Fr.: Mars   

Fourth planet from Sun and the seventh largest. Mass 6.42 × 1026 g (0.11 Earth's), radius 3397 km. Mean distance from Sun 1.52 → astronomical units. → Sidereal period 687 days, → synodic period 779.9 days. Surface temperature 248 K., → rotation period, or → sol, 24h37m22s.6. Mars' → obliquity is currently 25.19 degrees, but has changed dramatically over billions of years since solar system formation. Atmosphere more than 90% CO2, traces of O2, CO, H2O. Two tiny satellites (→ Phobos and → Deimos), both of which are locked in → synchronous rotation with Mars.

Late M.E., from L. Mars the Roman god of war, Ares in Gk. mythology.

Bahrâm, from Mid.Pers. Vahrâm, from Vahrân "god of victory," from Av. vərəθraγna- "victory, breaking the defence, the god of victory." The first element vərəθra- "shield, defensive power," cf. Skt. vrtrá- "defence, name of a demon slain by Indra," Arm. vahagan name of a god (loanword from Iranian). The second element γna-, from Av., also O.Pers., jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Mod.Pers. zadan, zan- "to strike, beat;" Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike," phonos "murder;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill."

Mars datum
  فرازبن ِ بهرام   
farâzbon-e Bahrâm

Fr.:   

The → zero point of elevation on Mars. It is the elevation at which the atmosphere pressure is 6.1 millibars, or 610 → Pascals. Atmosphere pressure has to be used because Mars has no ocean, and "sea level" cannot be used like on Earth. More formally, the datum is a fourth-order, fourth-degree surface of equal → gravitational potential (determined from the Viking orbiter spacecraft) such that the pressure of the atmosphere is 6.1 millibars (source: Lunar and Planetary Institute, USRA).

Mars; → datum.

Mars Trojan
  ترویایی ِ بهرام   
troyâ-yi-ye Bahrâm

Fr.: trojan de Mars   

A member of the family of → asteroids located at either of the stable → Lagrangian points (L4 or L5) of the orbit of → Mars.

Mars; → Trojan asteroid.

marsquake
  بهرام-لرزه   
bahrâm-larze

Fr.: tremblement de Mars   

A quake on the → planet Mars, probably caused by some phenomena other than → tectonic plate motions. Unlike Earth, Mars seems to lack tectonic plates. Therefore, its quakes are thought to arise from the slow cooling of the planet over time, which causes the → crust to contract and develop fractures. These quakes can also come from the impact of → meteorites and possibly the movement of → magma deep below the surface. On April 6, 2019, the instrument called Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) on NASA's Mars → InSight Mission lander recorded quakes that appear to have come from inside the planet, the first time ever a likely marsquake.

Mars; → quake.

Martian
  بهرامی، مریخی   
Bahrâmi (#), Merixi (#)

Fr.: martien   

Of, relating to, or like the planet → Mars.

M.E. marcien, from L. Marti(us) of, belonging to → Mars + -an a suffix of adjectives.

Martian meteorite
  شخانه‌ی ِ بهرامی، شهاب‌سنگ ِ ~   
šaxâne-ye Bahrâmi, šahâbsang-e ~

Fr.: météorite martienne   

A piece of rock that was ejected from the Martian surface into space by the impact of an asteroid or comet, and landed on Earth. So far about 100 Martian meteorites have been collected. These meteorites have elemental and isotopic compositions that match those of the Martian crust as measured by NASA's Mars exploration missions.

Martian; → meteorite.

Martian plume
  پرک ِ بهرام   
parrak-e Bahrâm

Fr.: plume de Mars   

A slender, cloudy projection sometimes seen to extend from the surface of → Mars to very high altitudes. Noted and confirmed by amateur astronomers on photos of Mars in March 2012, possibly similar plumes have been found on archived images as far back as 1997. The plumes reach 200 km up, which seems too high for them to be related to wind-blown surface dust. Since one plume lasted for more than 10 days, it seemed too long lasting to be related to → aurora. The origin of this phenomenon is not yet known.

Martian; → plume.

mascon
  جرمتود   
jermtud

Fr.: mascon   

A region on the surface of the → Moon where the → gravitational attraction is slightly higher than normal due to the presence of dense rock.

Short for mass concentration; → mass; → concentration.

masculine
  نرین   
narin (#)

Fr.: masculin   

1) Having qualities appropriate to or usually associated with a man.
2) Of, relating to, or constituting the gender that ordinarily includes most words or grammatical forms referring to males (Merriam-Webster.com).

M.E. masculin, from O.Fr. masculin "of the male sex," from L. masculinus "male, of masculine gender," from masculus "male, masculine; worthy of a man," diminutive of mas "male person, male," of unknown origin.

Narin, from nar, → male.

maser
  میزر   
meyzer (#)

Fr.: maser   

1) A source of very intense, narrow-band, coherent microwave radiation involving → stimulated emission, as in the → laser.
2) A device that generates such radiation.
3) In astronomy, maser emission detected from a number of molecules and associated with several environments: the vicinity of newly forming stars and → H II regions (OH, water, SiO, and methanol masers); the circumstellar shells of evolved stars, i.e. red giants and supergiants (OH, water, and SiO masers); the shocked regions where supernova remnants are expanding into an adjacent molecular cloud (OH masers); and the nuclei and jets of active galaxies (OH and water masers). The hydroxyl radical (OH) was the first interstellar maser detected (Weinreb et al. 1963).

Maser stands for Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation; → laser.

maser emission
  گسیل ِ میزری   
gosil-e meyzeri (#)

Fr.: émission maser   

An emission arising from the → maser process.

maser; → emission.

mask
  ۱) ماسک؛ ۲) ماسک زدن   
1) mâsk (#); 2) mâsk zadan (#)

Fr.: 1) masque; 2) masquer   

1) Something that serves to cover or conceal.
Electronics: A pattern used to control the configuration of conducting material deposited or etched onto a semiconductor chip.
2) Electronics: To override one signal with a stronger one.

From M.Fr. masque "covering to hide or guard the face," from It. maschera, from M.L. masca "mask, specter, nightmare," of uncertain origin.

1) Mâsk, loan from Fr., as above; 2) with verb zadan "to make, to do," originally "to strike, beat; to do; to play an instrument" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").

masking
  ماسک‌زد   
mâskzad

Fr.: masque, masquage   

1) A method of improving → spatial resolution of images. → pupil masking; → unsharp masking.
2) Computers: The process of specifying a number of values that allow extracting desired information from a set of characters or bits while suppressing the undesired information.

Verbal noun of → mask.

mass
  ۱) جرم، غند؛ ۲) توده، انبوه   
1) jerm (#), qond (#); 2) tudé (#), anbuh (#)

Fr.: masse   

1) A measure of the amount of material in an object, defined either by the inertial properties of the object or by its gravitational influence on other bodies. See also → inertial mass, → gravitational mass.
2) A considerable assemblage, number, or quantity.

From O.Fr. masse "lump," from L. massa "kneaded dough, lump," from Gk. maza "barley cake, lump, mass, ball," related to massein "to knead."

Jerm, from Ar. jirm.
Qond "assembled, collected; a crowd," related to gondé "coarse, thick; big;" Mid.Pers. gund "troop, group, gathering;" loaned into Arm. gund and Ar. jund.
Tudé "heap, stack, tumulus;" cf. Kurd. tavda "all, total;" Tati tâya "heap, mass;" Sogd. tuδē "heap, mass." Perhaps related to PIE *teuta- "people, tribe;" cf. Lith. tauta, Oscan touto, O.Irish tuath, Goth. þiuda, O.E. þeod "people, folk, race."
Anbuh "numerous, abundant," from Proto-Iranian *ham-buH- "to come together," from ham- "together," → com- + *buH- "to be , become," Av. ham.bauu- "to come together, unite," from ham- as above + bauu-, bu- "to be, become," O.Pers. bav- "to be, become," Mod.Pers. budan "to be," Skt. bhavati "becomes, happens," PIE base *bheu-, *bhu- "to grow, become;" cf. Gk. phu- "become," P.Gmc. *beo-, *beu-, E. be.

mass absorption coefficient
  همگر ِ درشم ِ جرمی   
hamgar-e daršm-e jermi

Fr.: coefficient d'absorption de masse   

A measure of the rate of absorption of radiation, expressed as the linear absorption coefficient divided by the density of the medium through which radiation is passing.

mass; → absorption; → coefficient.

mass defect
  کاست ِ جرم   
kâst-e jerm

Fr.: défaut de masse   

The difference between the rest mass of an atomic nucleus (made up of protons and neutrons) and the sum of the masses of its individual protons and neutrons. The mass difference is equal to the released binding energy. Also called mass deficiency

mass; → defect.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>