An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
normal dispersion
  پاشش ِ هنجارمند   
pâšeš-e hanjârmand

Fr.: dispersion normale   

The dispersion in which a shorter wavelength is associated with a higher → refractive index. Contrasted with the → anomalous dispersion.

normal; → dispersion.

normal distribution
  واباژش ِ هنجارور   
vâbâžeš-e hanjârvar

Fr.: distribution normale   

A theoretical frequency distribution for a set of variable data, usually represented by a bell-shaped curve with a mean at the center of the curve and tail widths proportional to the standard deviation of the data about the mean. Same as → Gaussian distribution.

normal; → distribution.

normal state
  حالت ِ هنجارور   
hâlat-e hanjârvar

Fr.: état fondamental   

Of an atom, the same as → ground state.

normal; → state.

normality
  هنجاروری   
hanjârvari

Fr.: normalité   

General: The fact or condition of being normal.
Chemistry: Measure of the number of gram-equivalent weights of a compound per liter of solution.

From → normal + → -ity.

normalization
  هنجارورش   
hanjârvareš

Fr.: normalisation   

1) A mathematical technique for adjusting a series of values (typically representing a set of measurements) according to some transformation function in order to make them comparable with some specific point of reference.
2) Process of introducing a numerical factor into an equation so that the area under the corresponding graph (if finite) shall be made equal to unity.
3) To change in scale so that the sum of squares or the integral of squares of the transformed quantity is zero.

Verbal noun of → normalize.

normalize
  هنجاروریدن، هنجارور کردن   
hanjârvaridan, hanjârvar kardan

Fr.: normaliser   

To change in scale so that the sum of squares, or the integral of the square, of the transformed quantity is unity.

normal + → -ize.

normalized
  هنجاروریده، هنجارور شده   
hanjârvaridé, hanjârver šodé

Fr.: normalisé   

The quality of something that has undergone → normalization.

P.p. of → normalize.

normalized Hubble parameter
  پارامون ِ هابل ِ هنجاروریده   
pârâmun-e Hubble-e hanjârvaridé

Fr.: paramètre Hubble normalisé   

A dimensionless parameter expressed by h(z) = H(z)/H0, where H(z) is the → Hubble parameter at → redshift z and H0 is the → Hubble constant.

normalized; → Hubble; → parameter.

north
  هودر   
hudar

Fr.: nord   

The → cardinal point at which the → meridian cuts the → horizon below the → north celestial pole.

M.E., O.E. norð, from P.Gmc. *nurtha- (cf. O.N. norðr, M.Du. nort, Du. noord, Ger. nord), ultimately from PIE *ner- "left, below."

Note: North is related to left since it is to the left when one faces the rising Sun. This occurs in, for example, the etymology of E. north, as above. The same goes for Ar. shimal, which also means "left."
Hudar, from hu(y), from Mid.Pers. hôy "left, left hand," from Av. haoiia- "left" (cf. Skt. savyá- "left hand;" O.C.S. šuji; Rus. šuj; Welsh aswy; PIE *seujos) + -dar, from -tar direction suffix, as in Mid.Pers. ošastar "east" (Av. ušastara- "easthern"), dôšastar "west" (Av. daôšatara-, daôšastara- "western"), abâxtar "north" (Av. apāxtara- "northern"), Mod.Pers. bâxtar, → west.

North America Nebula
  میغ ِ آمریکای ِ هودری   
miq-e Âmrikâ-ye hudari

Fr.: Nébuleuse de l'Amérique du Nord   

An → H II region in → Cygnus, also known as NGC 7000, resembling the continent North America in long exposure images. This nebula is lying three degrees from bright star → Deneb and spans on the sky over four times the angular size of the full Moon. A dark lane separates the North America Nebula from the → Pelican Nebula, actually part of the same enormous cloud some 2,000 → light-years away.

It was first photographed in 1890 by Max Wolf (1863-1932), a German astronomer, who also first called it the North America Nebula because of its resemblance to the Earth's continent. America, from the feminine of Americus, the Latinized first name of the explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512), who made two trips to the New World as a navigator and claimed to have discovered it. The name America first appeared on a map in 1507 by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, referring to the area now called Brazil; → nebula.

north celestial pole
  قطب ِ آسمانی ِ هودر   
qotb-e âsmâni-ye hudar

Fr.: pôle nord céleste   

The point in the → northern hemisphere where the → rotation axis of Earth touches the → celestial sphere. The star → Polaris, also called the Pole Star, is located very near this point, at an angular separation of 42 degrees (about 1.4 lunar diameters).

north; → celestial; → pole.

North point
  نقطه‌ی ِ هودر   
noqte-ye hudar

Fr.: point Nord   

The point on → horizon in direction of → geographic north pole.

north; → point.

North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD)
  لردهای ِ لایه-لایه‌ی ِ قطب ِ هودر   
Lerdhâ-ye Laye-laye-ye Qotb-e Hudar

Fr.: couches de dépôt du pôle nord   

A large area of the north polar region of Mars which is covered with alternating layers of water ice and dust. → South Polar Layered Deposits.

north; → polar; → layer; → deposit.

North Polar Spur
  شخاک ِ کهکشانی ِ هودری   
šaxâk-e kahkešâni-ye hudari

Fr.: éperon galactique nord   

One of the largest coherent structures in the radio sky, projecting from the → Galactic plane at → Galactic longitudel ~ 20° and extending to a very high → Galactic latitudeb ~ +80°. It was first identified in low frequency → radio surveys in the 1950s. The spur is also prominent in → soft X-rays. Its origins and nature have long been debated. However, what causes this phenomena is not well understood. It may be due to a combination of → OB associations and → supernova explosions.

north; → polar; → spur.

north pole
  قطب ِ هودر   
qotb-e hudar

Fr.: pôle nord   

1) An → imaginary → point in the → northern hemisphere representing the intersection of the → Earth's → rotation axis with the → globe or with the → celestial sphere.
2) For a → magnet, the pole which points toward the geographic north.
3) In a → magnetic field, the point from where a → line of force is leaves for the → south pole.

north; → pole.

northern
  هودری   
hudari

Fr.: nord   

1) Lying toward or situated in the → north.
2) North of the → celestial equator or of the → zodiac.

M.E., from O.E. norþerna, norðerne "northern," from norð "northern" + + -erne, suffix denoting direction

Hudari, relating to hudar, → north.

Northern Cross
  چلیپای ِ هودری   
calipâ-ye hudari

Fr.: Croix du Nord   

An arrangement of stars in the form of a cross in the constellation → Cygnus.

north; → cross.

northern hemisphere
  نیم‌سپهر ِ هودری   
nimsepehr-e hudari

Fr.: hémisphère nord   

The half of the → Earth or another → astronomical object between the → north pole and the → equator.

northern; → hemisphere.

nose
  ۱) دماغ، بینی؛ ۲) دماغه   
1) damâq (#), bini (#); 2) damâqé (#)

Fr.: nez   

1) The part projecting above the mouth serving as the organ of breathing and smelling.
2) Something like a nose in shape or position, especially the front end of an → aircraft. See also → nozzle.

M.E.; O.E. nosu (O.N. nös; Du. neus; O.H.G. nasa; Ger. Nase); PIE root *nas- "nose;" cf. Skt. nasa-; Av. nāh-; O.Pers. nāham; L. nasus; O.C.S. nasu; Lith. nosis. See also → nostril.

1) Damâq, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *damaka-, from *damH- "to breathe, to blow;" cf. Pers. dam-, damidan "to breathe, to blow;" Av. dāδmainya- "blowing up;" cf. Skt. dahm- "to blow," dhámati "blows;" Gk. themeros "austere, dark-looking;" Lith. dumti "to blow;" PIE dhem-/dhemə- "to smoke, to blow."
Bini "nose;" Mid.Pers. wênig "nose" (Av. vaēna- "nose"), related to wên "breath;" cognate with jân "vital spirit, soul," → animate.
2) Damâqé, from damâq + nuance suffix .

nostril
  ناگه   
nâge

Fr.: narine   

Either of the two external openings of the → nose; a naris.

M.E. nostrill, nosethirl, O.E. nosthyrl, literally "the hole of the nose," from nosu "nose"+ thyrel "hole."

Nâge, from (Fârs Province) Khuri nog, nug "nose," variants Sabzevâri nos, Shushtari, Bovir Ahmadi, Lori neft "nose;" Mid.Pers. nâk "nose;" cf. Sogd. nêc "nose, nostril" (from *nāhika-) O.Pers. nāh-, Av. nāh- "nose;" cognate with E. → nose.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>